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Norwalk Virus Infection

Infection by Norwalk Virus


Presentation

  • Norwalk Virus Ways of transmission The virus is present in the feces and vomit of infected people.[doctortipster.com]
  • The diagnosis is made based on the clinical presentation and the presence of other similarly infected contacts rather than on lab tests, as these are difficult and expensive, usually done in research laboratories.[medbroadcast.com]
  • E-mail: vprasad{at}bcm.tmc.edu † Present address: Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. ‡ Present address: Institute of Molecular Agrobiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604.[science.sciencemag.org]
  • Stools are characteristically loose and watery; blood, mucus, and leukocytes are not typically present.[meddean.luc.edu]
  • No vaccine is presently available for this virus. CAUSES and RELEVANCE to FLORIDA The Norwalk virus is shed in the stool for 24-48 hours after the onset of illness. Infection is spread by contaminated water, foods and from person to person.[epi.ufl.edu]
Asymptomatic
  • Forty-one subjects (82%) became infected; 68% were symptomatic and 32% were asymptomatic. The proportion of subjects infected was similar for those with and without preexisting antibody (82% vs. 60%; P .2).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Asymptomatic infection was defined as the absence of vomiting and/or diarrhea and a low overall symptom score (abdominal cramps, chills, body ache, headache, nausea, and fever) [ 8 ].[academic.oup.com]
  • Amar et al. ( 20 ) also reported viral loads to be higher in persons who had symptomatic gastroenteritis than in those who had been asymptomatic for at least 3 weeks.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • Isolation of an adhesin from Staphlococcus aureus that binds Lewis a blood group antigen and its relevance to sudden infant death syndrome. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 8, 315–320 (1994). 24 Hutson, A.M., Atmar, R.L., Marcus, D.M. & Estes, M.K.[nature.com]
Hemophilia A
  • Hemophilia Growth and Development Study, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study, San Francisco City Cohort, ALIVE Study. Science 273, 1856–1862 (1996). 21 Boren, T., Falk, P., Roth, K.A., Larson, G. & Normark, S.[nature.com]
Vomiting
  • You can acquire the virus by coming into contact with an ill person’s vomit or diarrhea.[simcoemuskokahealth.org]
  • The most common symptoms include nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps. Diarrhea may occasionally accompany vomiting. Fever is usually low grade or absent. Infected people generally recover in one to two days.[health.ny.gov]
  • Norwalk Virus Ways of transmission The virus is present in the feces and vomit of infected people.[doctortipster.com]
  • The magnitude of seroconversion was highest in subjects who had vomiting. The peak of viral shedding was between 25 and 72 h, and virus first appeared in stool at 15 h. Specimens collected 7 days after inoculation remained positive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Younger children are more likely to only experience vomiting while in adults, diarrhea is more common.[medbroadcast.com]
Diarrhea
  • You can acquire the virus by coming into contact with an ill person’s vomit or diarrhea.[simcoemuskokahealth.org]
  • Maintaining an adequate intake of fluids to fill the needs of your organism, lost from vomiting or diarrhea is very important.[doctortipster.com]
  • People who experience nausea, vomiting or diarrhea should not attend school or work and should not handle food for others while ill. Avoid drinking untreated water. Cook shellfish thoroughly before eating.[health.ny.gov]
  • Young children (children in diapers) that are experiencing diarrhea should not be allowed to go swimming or attend daycare.[health.state.mn.us]
  • Younger children are more likely to only experience vomiting while in adults, diarrhea is more common.[medbroadcast.com]
Nausea
  • Manifestations of the virus infection can be unpleasant, symptoms including stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and sometimes fever and chills or headache and muscles pain.[doctortipster.com]
  • The most common symptoms include nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps. Diarrhea may occasionally accompany vomiting. Fever is usually low grade or absent. Infected people generally recover in one to two days.[health.ny.gov]
  • Quick Summary: Viral Gastroenteritis, also commonly referred to as Stomach Flu, is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract, which is caused by contaminated food and water Severe abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, are characteristics[dovemed.com]
  • Most individuals with Norovirus will experience one to three days of nausea, vomiting, cramps and watery diarrhea. Symptoms can also include headache, fatigue, chills and muscle pain.[simcoemuskokahealth.org]
  • All 11 participants with viral gastroenteritis had abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting; 5 of these participants also had 200 g of watery diarrhea, and 1 had 37.6 o C (n 4), and chills (n 3).[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
Abdominal Cramps
  • Quick Summary: Viral Gastroenteritis, also commonly referred to as Stomach Flu, is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract, which is caused by contaminated food and water Severe abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, are characteristics[dovemed.com]
  • Other symptoms include fever, headache, stomachache, abdominal cramps. Generally, the disease dose not become worse and hospitalization is not necessary. Typically, recovery takes 2-3 days without long effects of health.[doctortipster.com]
  • All 11 participants with viral gastroenteritis had abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting; 5 of these participants also had 200 g of watery diarrhea, and 1 had 37.6 o C (n 4), and chills (n 3).[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • The illness is generally mild and characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Vomiting is the predominant symptom among children, whereas diarrhea is commoner among adults.[annals.org]
Food Poisoning
  • The use of the rNV EIA for measuring IgA and IgG responses in patients involved in a major outbreak of food poisoning affecting hospital staff indicated that the causative agent was probably NV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • Manifestations of the virus infection can be unpleasant, symptoms including stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and sometimes fever and chills or headache and muscles pain.[doctortipster.com]
  • Symptoms can also include headache, fatigue, chills and muscle pain. Severe illness or hospitalization caused by Norovirus infection is uncommon. Infected individuals usually recover in two to three days without serious or longterm health effects.[simcoemuskokahealth.org]
  • […] infection and development of immunity, that immunity fades with time, rendering the person susceptible to further infection Following exposure to the virus, after an incubation period of one to three days, the infected person experiences fever, aches, headache[medbroadcast.com]
  • The 5 participants who did not fulfill the criteria for gastroenteritis had nausea (n 5), anorexia (n 5), malaise (n 4), abdominal cramps (n 3), myalgia (n 3), headache (n 3), temperature 37.6 o C (n 2), chills (n 2), and watery diarrhea All infected[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Signs of mild dehydration are: thirst, dry mouth, dry lips and eyes, headache, dark urine, lightheadedness, dizziness.[en.wikiversity.org]

Workup

  • In general, GII.4 strains are associated with higher rates of hospitalization and death. [3, 4] See Workup for more detail.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Helicobacter Pylori
  • Density of Helicobacter pylori infection in vivo as assessed by quantitative culture and histology, J Infect Dis, 1996 , vol. 174 (pg. 552 - 6 ) 12.[academic.oup.com]
  • Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium mediated by blood group antigens. Science 262, 1892–1895 (1993). 22 Schaeffer, A.J. et al. Host pathogenesis in urinary tract infections. Internal J. Antimicrob.[nature.com]
Colitis
  • […] and colitis, unspecified 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To Colitis NOS Enteritis NOS Gastroenteritis NOS Ileitis NOS Jejunitis NOS Sigmoiditis NOS Type 1 Excludes diarrhea NOS ( R19.7 ) functional diarrhea ( K59.1 ) infectious[icd10data.com]
  • 急性胃腸症 エントリ H01323 名称 ノーウォーク様ウイルスによる急性胃腸症; ノロウイルス性胃腸炎; ノロウイルス性腸炎; 流行性嘔吐症 カテゴリ 感染症 階層分類 感染症疾患 [BR: jp08401 ] ウイルス感染症 ssRNAウイルスによる感染症 H01323 ノーウォーク様ウイルスによる急性胃腸症 ICD-11 による疾患分類 [BR: jp08403 ] 01 Certain infectious or parasitic diseases Gastroenteritis or colitis[genome.jp]
  • Common causes include ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, microscopic colitis, celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome and bile acid malabsorption.[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • What is the treatment for norovirus infection? No specific treatment is available. Persons who become dehydrated might need to be rehydrated by taking liquids by mouth. Occasionally patients may need to be hospitalized to receive intravenous fluids.[health.ny.gov]
  • What is the treatment for Norovirus? There is no specific treatment for Norovirus infection. You should get bed rest and drink plenty of fluids. People who become severely dehydrated should seek medical attention.[simcoemuskokahealth.org]
  • […] complications resulting from Viral Gastroenteritis and a full recovery is generally observed Please find comprehensive information on Viral Gastroenteritis regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment[dovemed.com]
  • Treatment Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent Norwalk virus. And because the disease is triggered by virus, antibiotics are ineffective. Serious cases are rare and associated with dehydration or electrolyte imbalance.[doctortipster.com]

Prognosis

  • Viral Gastroenteritis and a full recovery is generally observed Please find comprehensive information on Viral Gastroenteritis regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • What Is the Prognosis of a Norovirus Infection? Norovirus infection typically resolves on its own without any adverse consequences in healthy people who receive adequate hydration and the prognosis is generally excellent.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Prognosis Norovirus gastroenteritis is a self-limiting disease with an excellent prognosis in otherwise healthy individuals.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Norwalk virus Etiology Norwalk virus is classified as a member of the Caliciviridae. These are single-strand RNA viruses with 27-38nm naked capsids.[meddean.luc.edu]
  • This resistant nature, along with prolonged excretion from infected individuals and the wide genetic diversity of these viruses—which precludes the development of broad-spectrum host immunity—accounts for why these viruses are the most prevalent etiological[bcmj.org]
  • Consequently, outbreaks were not fully investigated, and a substantial number were still labeled as being of unknown etiology.[cdc.gov]
  • Acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis: Etiology and pathogenesis. Ann Intern Med 1972; 76: 993 Google Scholar De Leon, R, Matsui, SM, Baric, RS, et al.[link.springer.com]
  • Acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis: etiology and pathogenesis. Ann Intern Med. 1972 Jun. 76(6):993-1008. [Medline]. Widerlite L, Trier JS, Blacklow NR, Schreiber DS.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ISSN: 0950-2688 EISSN: 1469-4409 URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection[cambridge.org]
  • […] articles Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1994, 40(10): 805-809, Abstract To determine the seroprevalence of Norwalk virus and whether Norwalk virus contributed to an observed increase in illness in tap water drinkers participating in a prospective epidemiological[nrcresearchpress.com]
  • Molecular epidemiology of human enteric caliciviruses in the Netherlands. J. Infect. Dis. 181, S262–S269 (2000). 5 Glass, R.I. et al. The epidemiology of enteric caliciviruses from humans: a reassessment using new diagnostics. J. Infect.[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Noroviruses are transmitted person to person via direct contact, exposure to aerosols, or fecal–oral routes.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • "The Role of Ion Transporters in the Pathophysiology of Infectious Diarrhea". Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 6 (1): 33–45. doi : 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.02.009. PMC 6007821. PMID 29928670. Williams G, Nesse RM (1996).[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Contact us: If you have questions or comments about this page, use our IDEPC Comment Form or call 651-201-5414 for the MDH Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Division.[health.state.mn.us]
  • Infection control measure Prevention of outbreaks of infection in communities, depends on maintaining a good hygiene level at the staff who handle food.[doctortipster.com]
  • This second edition contains new chapters on the role of US poison centres in viral exposures, detection of human enteric viruses in foods, environmental consideration in preventing foodborne spread of hepatitis A, seafood parasites, HACCP principles[books.google.com]
  • […] resulting from Viral Gastroenteritis and a full recovery is generally observed Please find comprehensive information on Viral Gastroenteritis regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention[dovemed.com]

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