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Nystagmus


Presentation

  • This case describes an unusual presentation of Straatsma syndrome and investigates the clinical features of this disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here is presented the case of a unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) with concomitant skew deviation, contralesional exotropia and ipsiversive torsional nystagmus as the initial and only presenting feature of an isolated pontine stroke.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The severity of the presentation varies, ranging from mild cases with normal intelligence to severe developmental delays associated with early death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen pediatric patients who presented between September 2002 and February 2014 at a single tertiary care institution.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our patient presented with developmental delay, nystagmus, and severe gastrointestinal and gastroesophageal complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Arthritis
  • It is useful in case of external acoustic meatus or middle ear disease as a substitute for the water caloric test and is preferable in elderly patients with vascular disease or arthritis of the neck to the head-shaking-test or head-impulse-test.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Caution should be taken when there is concern for vascular dissection and in patients that have a limited cervical range of motion, e.g., cervical stenosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
Aniridia
  • The p.X423Lfs mutation has previously been described in cases of atypical aniridia, but this is the first report demonstrating abnormal cone-driven ERG responses associated with this particular mutation of the PAX6 gene.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conditions that can be associated with this type of nystagmus include congenital cataracts, optic nerve hypoplasia, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, achromatopsia, oculocutaneous albinism, aniridia, choroidal coloboma, severe refractive error, among others[aapos.org]
  • ., corneal opacity, cataract, albinism, aniridia, optic atrophy, chorioretinitis). Nystagmus may also accompany a number of neurological disorders, and may be a reaction to certain drugs (including barbiturates).[tsbvi.edu]
  • Another cause may be not having an iris, or colored part, in the eye (aniridia). Acquired nystagmus. This type happens later in life.[fairview.org]
Nystagmus
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Current themes include vestibular nystagmus, positional nystagmus, optokinetic nystagmus and after-nystagmus, vibration-induced nystagmus, head-shaking nystagmus, postrotatory nystagmus, caloric nystagmus, nystagmus in cerebellar disorders[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: We included 20 healthy volunteers, 17 patients with horizontal nystagmus, and 15 patients with mixed nystagmus. Caloric nystagmus was recorded in healthy volunteers; positional nystagmus was recorded in each patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Certain diagnostic features differentiate voluntary nystagmus from pathologic nystagmus: the convergent effort required to start the nystagmus, the inability to sustain the movement for more than a minute, and the accompanying lid flutter.[dx.doi.org]
  • Other rare forms of nystagmus or abnormal eye movements, such as pendular nystagmus, ocular oscillation or flutter were recorded in only four patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neglect
  • Whereas physical and emotional neglect account for a quarter of the reported cases of child neglect, educational neglect accounts for half of the cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • But if the nystagmus is new or of sudden onset, a child may need a diagnostic workup. In some children, assessing the pattern of the nystagmus and determining any other symptoms can help to identify a diagnosis.[complexchild.org]
  • It is necessary for this kind of nystagmus to perform a complete neurological and endocrinological workup.[intechopen.com]
Atelectasis
  • We suggest that this unique combination of symptoms should be considered as the clinical presentation of vestibular atelectasis, which has been previously described histologically as collapse of the endolymph-containing portions of the labyrinth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Detailed eye examination in all of the patients before treatment and repeated at the end of the first week after treatment. SPSS 16.0 computer program was used for evaluation of DATAs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most success has been found with gabapentin in the treatment of acquired pendular nystagmus and baclofen in the treatment for acquired periodic alternating nystagmus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our sham treatment, which transiently stimulated the normal treatment points, also produced markedly different results from all the actual treatment sessions examined for this patient, appearing to exacerbate his nystagmus.[bjo.bmj.com]

Prognosis

  • Diagnosis and Prognosis: While no curative treatment is available for infantile onset idiopathic congenital nystagmus, it is important to obtain thorough ophthalmological, medical and neurological evaluations.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • Prognosis: Reduced vision to the 20/60 to 20/100 range is common. In the absence of other ocular abnormalities, it is a non-progressive condition. There is no systemic disease in idiopathic congenital nystagmus.[wohproject.org]
  • This work is important for providing early diagnosis as well as improving the prognosis of the degree of visual deficit later in life to parents.[www2.le.ac.uk]
  • Prognosis Congenital nystagmus is usually a benign condition. It is not curable, but its symptoms can be diminished with spectacles or contact lenses.[encyclopedia.com]

Etiology

  • Data collected included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), etiology of cataracts, associated systemic/ocular conditions, status of strabismus, surgical complications, and presence of nystagmus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To propose an etiology for a syndrome of bilateral vestibular hypofunction and sound and/or pressure-evoked eye movements with normal hearing thresholds. Retrospective case series. Tertiary care referral center.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Introducing lysosomal enzyme assays to the testing of children with global developmental delay with unknown etiology in countries with high rates of consanguinity will not only increase the percentage of diagnosed cases, but will also help orient genetic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This chapter reviews the approach to the patient with nystagmus or saccadic intrusions and their clinical features (with illustrative video cases), etiology, pathophysiology, and management.[oxfordmedicine.com]
  • It can have many etiologies. Acquired nystagmus can be associated with serious medical conditions and will usually require further evaluation with imaging studies of the brain in order to determine a potential cause.[aapos.org]

Epidemiology

  • Previous estimates have been based on wider ophthalmic epidemiologic studies within specific occupational or age groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we reviewed the medical records of all children ( RESULTS: Seventy-one children were diagnosed during the 30-year period, yielding an annual incidence of 6.72 per 100,000 younger than 19 years (95% confidence[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO (BPPV) Epidemiology BPPV is the commonest form of positional nystagmus. A quarter of patients sent for vestibular testing have it (1).[neuroophthalmology.ca]
  • Epidemiology The exact incidence and prevalence of nystagmus is not known but it is thought to occur in about 1 in 1,000 people.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • ., continuous or intermittent expression) of the nystagmus may be associated with pathophysiological severity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will cover the recent advances in clinical and laboratory features, pathophysiology, and treatment of central vestibular disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical features in the course of conversion differed between patients with SSNHL and cupulopathy, which indicates that the pathophysiology of persistent geotropic or apogeotropic DCPN and the mechanism of the change in nystagmus direction may differ[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, to capitalise on these advances, it is important to systematically examine eye movements and interpret the findings with reference to pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying nystagmus are poorly understood but it is anticipated that characterization of the FRMD7 gene and identification of novel nystagmus genes will provide insights into this condition and the functioning and development[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • How can I prevent nystagmus? In most cases, nystagmus cannot be prevented. Reviewed for medical accuracy by faculty at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins. Web site: Developed by RelayHealth. Published by RelayHealth.[summitmedicalgroup.com]
  • Because Frenzel lenses prevent visual fixation, they must be removed to assess visual fixation. Caloric stimulation of the ear canal induces nystagmus in a person with an intact vestibular system.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Your donation to the Nystagmus Network will fund research to find the cause and work towards preventing nystagmus.[nystagmusnet.org]
  • Prevention There are no current guidelines to prevent nystagmus.[winchesterhospital.org]

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