In the United States, 36% of the population are clinically obese as of 2010. Obesity remains to be a looming major health crisis internationally where its prevalence rate is increasing rapidly especially in the first world countries worldwide .
Obesity is technically defined as having a BMI of more than 30. BMI is an index that reflects the body weight in kilograms divided by the height of the individual in meters squared. Obese patients usually present with higher anthropometric measurements which include waist circumference, hip circumference, and thigh circumference. The neck circumference is also an effective parameter in determining the risk for sleep apnea in most obese patients . Joint deformities may frequently be observed for it bears the weight of the unusually large body mass.
Patients that are seen to be obese with BMI of more than 30 are subjected to a more detailed clinical interview with emphasis on metabolic habits and genetic predispositions, and a meticulous physical examination inclusive of the standard anthropometric measurements for comparison. The following ancillary tests are done on an obese patient:
The general goal in the treatment of obesity is to achieve the healthy weight level. Weight reduction regimens are dependent on the level of obesity . The following treatment tools are usually implored on obese patients:
Recent researches in endocrinology and metabolic sciences have implicated obesity to increase the mortality and morbidity of patients with comorbid cardiovascular diseases . Obesity is also associated with a significant increase of all-cause mortality and morbidity rating. Furthermore, obese patients with body mass index (BMI) of more than 28 are associated with an almost two fold risk of cardiac diseases and cerebral stroke.
Obesity occurs as a combination of several contributing factors. The following factors are established to be contributory to the development of obesity among susceptible patients:
In the United States, more than 90 million of the population including men, women, and children are noted to be obese. Prevalence rate of obesity are even more pronounced in some minority groups like the Prima Indians, Afro-Americans, and the Latin Americans . Obese and overweight individuals account for 1 out of 5 deaths in the United States today .
The worldwide prevalence of obesity has been steadily increasing especially in the northern hemisphere and Europe. Today, approximately 22% of the female and 15% of the male are obese in Europe . Because women physiologically have a higher fat content than male, obesity has a greater predilection to women than in men. Conservatively, the currently global estimates suggests that 7% of the world population are obese. Obese children are most likely to obese when the reach adulthood.
There are practically two types of obesity in relation to adipocyte (fat cells) development, the hypercellular obesity, and the hypertrophic obesity. Hypertorphic obesity is associated with the increasing size of adipocytes found in majority of cases like the android abdominal obesity. This is the type of obesity found in adulthood that is easily responsive to weight reduction treatments.
The hypercellular obesity type usually occurs among obese individual that starts out as an obese adolescent and may also occur among the severely obese adult patients. Recent researches are unearthing the possibilities that certain adipocytes in the body may functionally serve as an endocrine gland that regulates weight gain . The involvement of insulin in the control the olfactory senses during the actual act of eating has been intensively investigated in the pathogenesis of obesity .
The main goal in the prevention of obesity is practically very similar to the approach in weight reduction programs for the obese patient. One is regularly encourage to do exercises and monitor one’s weight and BMI. Dietary restriction of unhealthy foods should be practiced and an avid monitoring of the calories ingested daily should be in place.
Obesity is revered to be a complex medical condition involving excessive amounts of body and visceral fats. Obesity does not only distort the overall physique of the person, but it also increases the risk of one for diseases like diabetes, heart diseases, and hypertension . Recent trends on weight reduction have shown dramatic decrease in the relative health risk associated with obesity. There are many options available today to address the obesity problem, these includes weight losing pills, exercises, dietary modifications, and bariatric surgery.
Obesity is a broad term that is used to describe a complex medical condition involving excessive amounts of body and visceral fats.
The cause of obesity can vary from genetic causes to hormonal influence, it can also be due to physical inactivity, as a side effect of excessive usage of few medications, secondary to few medical conditions, post pregnancy, and due to lack of proper sleep.
Diagnosis includes detailed clinical history and physical examination, anthropometric measurements, blood tests to rule out secondary medical conditions, and ECG.
Treatment includes treatment of secondary medical conditions, weight loss programs, dietary modifications, exercise, weight loss medications, and bariatric surgery.