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Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 5

OCA5


Presentation

  • Mutation in dopamine decarboxylase Which of the following clinical features is always present in OCA1 and are they present at birth? a. Coloboma and glaucoma, present at birth b. Cataract and glaucoma, present at birth c.[gwumc.edu]
  • Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) presents with hypopigmentation associated with an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.[ommbid.mhmedical.com]
  • The melanocyte is present in all individuals and is only rarely absent in some.[edoj.org.eg]
  • Abstract In this study, we report on a Cameroonian family from the Ewondo ethnic group, presenting with three oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2) patients homozygous for the 2.7-kb deletion of the P gene.[nature.com]
  • Snapshot A 5-year-old girl presents to her primary care physician's office for counseling. She was recently diagnosed with type 2 oculocutaneous albinism based on genetic studies and clinical exam.[medbullets.com]
Falling
  • In addition, whereas autosomal recessive ocular albinism is inherited in a manner similar to oculocutaneous albinism, Nettleship-Falls syndrome is X-linked (the causative mutation is located on the X chromosome).[britannica.com]
  • Historically, X-linked ocular albinism is also called Nettleship-Falls ocular albinism, after the two physicians who defined its X-linked inheritance.[visionofchildren.org]
  • Ocular albinism Ocular albinism 1 X-linked recessive [Nettleshop-Falls type] Locus is Xp22.[medcaretips.com]
  • Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) This is the most common form, with a prevalence of 1 in 50,000 people; it is known as the Nettleship-Falls type, or type 1. The retinal pigment epithelium lacks pigment but cells elsewhere are normal.[patient.info]
  • The differential diagnosis for individuals with albinism who have pigment in the skin and hair (OCA1B) includes OCA2, OCA3, OCA4, Hermansky-Pudlak syndromes 1-7, and X-linked (Nettleship-Falls) ocular albinism (OA1).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Physician
  • This information is not intended to be patient education, does not create any patient-physician relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment.[diseaseinfosearch.org]
  • Snapshot A 5-year-old girl presents to her primary care physician's office for counseling. She was recently diagnosed with type 2 oculocutaneous albinism based on genetic studies and clinical exam.[medbullets.com]
  • Historically, X-linked ocular albinism is also called Nettleship-Falls ocular albinism, after the two physicians who defined its X-linked inheritance.[visionofchildren.org]
Turkish
  • OCA4 was identified initially in one male of Turkish origin. Studies now suggest that this is the second most common type of OCA in Japanese individuals [ Inagaki et al 2004 ].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Blonde Hair
  • (An equivalent mutation produces the coat pattern in Siamese cats. [9] ) Another variant of OCA1b, called Albinism, yellow mutant type is more common among the Amish than in other populations, and results in blonde hair and the eventual development of[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms of albinism Hair and skin colour People with albinism often have white or very light blonde hair, although some have brown or ginger hair. The exact colour depends on how much melanin their body produces.[nhs.uk]
  • It results in blonde hair and the development of skin pigmentation during infancy.[patient.info]
  • Some affected individuals have marked hypopigmentation of their skin and hair similar to that pf OCA1A, others have white skin and yellow or blond hair similar to OCA1B or OCA2, and others have only moderate hypopigmentation suggesting that they may have[edoj.org.eg]
Normal Hair
  • People with this type have normal hair, skin, and eye coloring, but have no coloring in the retina (the back of the eye). Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome This syndrome is a rare form of albinism that’s due to a defect in one of eight genes.[healthline.com]
  • Most children with albinism are born to parents who have normal hair and eye colour for their ethnic backgrounds.[patient.info]
Long Arm
  • In addition to mutations in TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2 gene, alterations in another gene called MC1R, located on the long arm of chromosome 16 (16q24.3), can change the appearance of people with oculocutaneous albinism type 2.[ivami.com]
  • A locus for familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease on the long arm of chromosome 14 proximal to the alpha 1-antichymotrypsin gene. ‎ Página 48 - M., 2000.[books.google.es]
Short Arm
  • The SLC45A2 gene, also called MATP, located on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p13.2), encodes a protein, although its exact function is unknown, is likely to be involved in melanin production.[ivami.com]

Workup

  • Metastasis workup was negative. Complete surgical excision, strict photoprotection and regular follow-up were advised. A timely recognition of this potentially aggressive neoplasm is the key to curative treatment.[e-ijd.org]

Treatment

  • CLOSE Medical Disclaimer The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes.[diseaseinfosearch.org]
  • State-of-the-art coverage of key areas such as OCT and all of the newest imaging techniques for the eye, orbit and visual pathways; anti-VEGF treatment for retinopathy of prematurity; and minimally invasive strabismus surgery.[books.google.com]
  • There is no cure for vitiligo, but there are several treatments, including cosmetic cover-ups, corticosteroid creams, calcineurin inhibitors (Elidel cream, Protopic ointment) or ultraviolet light treatments.[webmd.com]
  • Treatment Treatment Options: There is no treatment for the basic disease but low vision aids may be helpful for some patients. Dark glasses provide comfort for photophobic individuals. The skin should be protected against sunburn.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
  • To evaluate methods of quantifying eye pigmentation, skin pigmentation and other clinical parameters that may be usable as outcome measures in future treatment studies.[clinicaltrials.gov]

Prognosis

  • […] tyrosine Genetics inheritance pattern autosomal recessive mutations type 1 chromosome 11 gene encoding tyrosinase type 2 chromosome 15 OCA2 gene encodes small molecule transporters involved in transport of tyrosinase Associated conditions skin cancer Prognosis[medbullets.com]
  • Complications Skin cancer, sunburn Reduced visual acuity Social stigma Prognosis Patients with albinism have a normal lifespan. An increased risk of skin cancer exists; however, this is curable. Patients may have children with no complications.[medcaretips.com]
  • The patient will continue to benefit from rehabilitative services in the United States, and the patient’s prognosis is positive as OCA is a stable condition.[coavision.org]
  • Prognosis Growth, development and intellectual development in the child are normal. Vision is invariably severely impaired [ 2 ]. A spectrum of structure and function exists in albinism.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Lyons, both globally recognized leaders, provide authoritative coverage of all the pediatric ophthalmic conditions you’re likely to encounter in practice, including the latest clinical advances in etiology, diagnosis, and medical and surgical management[books.google.com]
  • The etiology of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) type II: the pink protein modulates the processing and transport of tyrosine. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15:217. Oetting WS, Gardner JM, Fryer JP, et al.[rarediseases.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology [ 2 ] About 1 in 70 people carry a gene for OCA. Approximately 1 in 17,000 people in Europe and the USA have one of the types of albinism, although in some parts of the world it is more common than this.[patient.info]
  • Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 11 :782-784, 2002. [ Link to article (PubMed) ] Rinchik E. M., Bultman S. J., Horsthemke B., Lee S-T., Strunk K. M., Spritz R. A., Avidanoll K. M., Long M. T. C., Nicholls R. D.[ifpcs.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In The Pigmentary System: Physiology and Pathophysiology, 2nd ed. Nordlund JJ, Boissy RE, Hearing VJ, King RA, Oetting WS, Ortonne J-P, eds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2006:599-613. King RA Hearing VJ, Creel DJ, et al. Albinism.[rarediseases.org]
  • Pathophysiology of Albinism Melanin is a pigment in the skin that absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby preventing skin damage. The tanning of the skin normally on sun exposure is due to increased melanin pigment in the skin.[medcaretips.com]

Prevention

  • The Genetic Counseling Clinic, The Michaelson Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, Hadassah University Hospital, Kyriat Hadassah, PO Box 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel IL 3.[link.springer.com]
  • Most of these mutations eliminated the activity of tyrosinase, preventing melanin production by melanocytes. These mutations cause a form of oculocutaneous albinism called type 1A (OCA1A).[ivami.com]
  • Hospital for Sick Children Health A-Z Search a complete list of child health articles expand_more View All Drug A-Z Search a list of articles about medications expand_more View All Learning Hubs Browse a complete list of content groups Healthy Living & Prevention[aboutkidshealth.ca]
  • From available reports, skin cancers in albinos are preventable [21,22].[odermatol.com]
  • […] white hair) blue to yellow/brown irides pigmented nevi freckles Studies Labs genetic testing to confirm diagnosis Differential Vitiligo Treatment Conservative sunscreen, sunglasses, and avoid sun exposure indication for all patients in an attempt to prevent[medbullets.com]

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