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Oligodendroglioma of the Brain

Malignant Oligodendroglioma of Brain


Presentation

  • PRESENT INVESTIGATION In 6 of the 25 cases in this series (24 per cent) the tumor was intraventricular, presumably arising from the walls of the ventricle.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Younger patients often present with seizures and therefore are diagnosed earlier than adults, who may present with other neurologic symptoms. In Olson’s study of 106 patients, the median age at presentation was 37 years.[epilepsy.com]
  • […] clear surrounding cytoplasm on routinely processed specimens Histologic features often include a branching capillary pattern and microcalcifications Astrocytic appearance does not preclude this diagnosis when the appropriate molecular alterations are present[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • There was a problem loading this presentation. You may not have permission to view it. You do not have permission to view this presentation. An error occurred while loading this content. Please refresh the page to try again.[univadis.it]
  • Subclones were present in oligodendrocyte-like cells, astrocyte-like cells, and stem-like cells. This suggests that the subclonal mutations were not responsible for the different types of cells present in the tumor.[synapse.ucsf.edu]
Asymptomatic
  • Treatment of asymptomatic biopsy-proven low grade oligodendrogliomas is controversial (similar to low grade astrocytomas).[bccancer.bc.ca]
  • The increased availability of radiologic examinations raises the diagnosis of the spinal asymptomatic localizations.[jneuro.com]
Turkish
  • Turkish Neurosurgery 8: 276-280. Nijjar TS, Simpson WJ, Gadalla T, McCartney M (1993) Oligodendroglioma: The Princess Margaret Hospital Experience (1958-1984). Cancer 71: 4002-4006.[jneuro.com]
Dentist
  • With a busy, active life, a baby on the way and a blossoming career with the Winnipeg Police Service, Connor greeted September 27, 2011 worrying about a trip to the dentist. “The date just sticks in my mind,” he remembers.[braintumour.ca]
Anosmia
  • […] seizures (21.3%); unilateral weakness (7.1%); unsteadiness (6.1%); expressive language disorder (5.8%); visual problems (3.2%); confusion (4.5%); unilateral numbness (2.3%); personality problems (1.6%); diplopia (0.3%); and other symptoms (24.2%), such as anosmia[aafp.org]
Constipation
  • The main side effects of vincristine are peripheral neuropathy and constipation. Vincristine binds to tubulin dimers causing disassembly of microtubules. Disruption of the microtubules arrests mitosis in metaphase.[bmcneurol.biomedcentral.com]
Gagging
  • ., smiling, frowning, etc.) tongue movement and gag reflex tests head movement tests mental status tests (e.g., asking what year it is, who the President is, etc.) abstract thinking tests (e.g., asking for the meaning of a common saying, such as "every[encyclopedia.com]
Visual Impairment
  • Treatment is given to relieve the symptoms, particularly visual impairment. Treatment may include repeated lumbar punctures or medications to decrease CSF. In severe cases, a shunt may be needed.[braintumor.org]
Short Arm
  • Under the microscope, these tumor cells appear to have “short arms,” or a fried-egg shape. The exact cause of oligodendroglioma brain tumors is unknown.[disabilityspecialists.net]
  • Under the microscope, these tumor cells appear to have “short arms,” or a fried-egg shape. Sometimes oligodendrogliomas are mixed with other cell types.[abta.org]
  • This abnormality is characterized by the simultaneous deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and long arm of chromosome 19.[cancer.gov]
  • (Each pair of human chromosome contains a long arm q and a short arm p.[nbt.nhs.uk]
Muscle Weakness
  • […] blurring, blind spots, diplopia, abnormal eye movements) o Changes in mentation (impaired thinking, difficulty concentrating or reading, memory or speech) o Personality change, irritability o Unusual drowsiness, increased sleeping o Sensory changes o Muscle[physio-pedia.com]
  • Physical examination demonstrated grade 4/5 muscle weakness in the left arm. Other extremities revealed grade 5/5 of motor strength. Pinpricked sensation was suspended deficits at C5-T1 levels.[cnjournal.biomedcentral.com]
Visual Hallucination
  • hallucinations) Muscular weakness and loss of control of bodily movements (weakness down one side of body) Altered sensations (strange smells, hallucinations relating to sense of smell) Sometimes the symptoms experienced depend on where the brain tumours[thebraintumourcharity.org]
Nystagmus
  • Brain stem Cranial nerve dysfunction, ataxia, papillary abnormalities, nystagmus, hemiparesis, autonomic dysfunction Table 3.[aafp.org]
Tremor
  • Irritation : abnormal fatigue, weariness, absences and tremors, but also epileptic seizures. The above symptoms are true for ALL types of neoplasm of the brain (including secondary tumors).[1in8.org]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • The main side effects of vincristine are peripheral neuropathy and constipation. Vincristine binds to tubulin dimers causing disassembly of microtubules. Disruption of the microtubules arrests mitosis in metaphase.[bmcneurol.biomedcentral.com]
Hypesthesia
  • ] 3/M Scoliosis Thoracolumbar AO PR and RT NA Nam et al. [ 11 ] 38/M Scoliosis, and monoparesis of right lower limb IM with syringomyelia along T4-conus medullaris AO PR and RT 50 months, no progression of tumor Ushida et al. [ 12 ] 12/M Scoliosis, hypesthesia[cnjournal.biomedcentral.com]

Workup

  • What is the next appropriate step in the diagnostic workup? Order 1p/19q FISH Order Ki67 Order Olig2 immunohistochemistry Send the tumor for next generation sequencing Sign the case out as astrocytoma, IDH mutant Back to top[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Detection of many of the molecular changes that underlie the development of gliomas and other BT can now be done by immunohistochemistry and is getting into the mainstream of the diagnostic workup of BT.[neuropathology-web.org]
Gliosis
  • The lesion was interpreted as a low grade glioma or, in second instance, as gliosis related to the previous irradiation, and she was discharged with antiepileptic medications and the indication to perform a control MRI after 4 months.[jneuro.com]
  • TP53 mutations are common in diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, and secondary glioblastoma, and help distinguish glioma from gliosis. Mutations can be detected by immunohistochemistry which shows strong nuclear staining for p53.[neuropathology-web.org]

Treatment

  • Oligodendroglioma treatments The treatment of an oligodendroglioma depends on whether a tumour is grade 2 or grade 3.[thebraintumourcharity.org]
  • Gliomas in children Find out about gliomas in children and their treatment. Ependymoma Learn about ependymoma and its treatment. Oligodendroglioma Find out about oligodendroglioma and its treatment.[cancerresearchuk.org]

Prognosis

  • What is the prognosis of an oligodendroglioma? Prognosis in relation to brain tumours is an average number, given in months or years that a patient is likely to survive for, following diagnosis.[thebraintumourcharity.org]
  • Prognosis A prognosis is an estimate of the likely progress of a disease after a diagnosis, based on an average patient group.[braintumour.ca]
  • Currently, the factors listed above are the best indicators of a patient’s prognosis.[cancer.net]
  • Staging determines the prognosis of the cancer as well and provides uniformity of care.[news-medical.net]
  • Symptoms, Survival Rate, Prognosis Tongue Cancer Pictures, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis, Survival Rate Inflammatory Breast Cancer - Pictures, Symptoms, Signs, Survival Rate, Prognosis Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia[cancerwall.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology The etiology is not known but no hereditary forms of oligodendroglioma have been reported. However, specific genetic characteristics, such as loss of chromosomes 1p and 19q, are observed.[orpha.net]
  • Since the etiology of oligodendrogliomas is unknown, there is no preventive measure at present.[oncolink.org]
  • […] oligodendroglioma Epidemiology Classification Etiology Variants at 8q24.21 have been shown to be associated with glioma development.[operativeneurosurgery.com]
  • Etiology / Causes The etiology of glioblastoma remains unknown in most cases. Familial gliomas account for approximately 5% of malignant gliomas, and less than 1% of gliomas are associated with a known genetic syndrome.[physio-pedia.com]

Epidemiology

  • References: [1] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • METHODS Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (1999–2010) database, the authors identified 2378 patients with WHO Grade II oligodendroglioma (O2 group) and 1028 patients with WHO Grade III oligodendroglioma (O3 group).[thejns.org]
  • The remaining eight chapters have a common format, reviewing the history, epidemiology, biology, pathology, clinical symptoms, differential diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and complications of specific tumors.[books.google.ro]
  • Histology of Oligodendroglioma oligodendroglioma (WHO grade II) anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III) Epidemiology of Oligodendroglioma peak age between 35 and 50 in childhood around 10 men are a little more often affected Symptoms of Oligodendroglioma[hirntumorhilfe.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Oligodendrogliomas arise in the cerebral hemispheres and are distributed among the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe, in approximately a 3:2:2:1 ratio.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • This can be a difficult thing to accept and can leave you feeling helpless, but there is nothing you could have done to prevent this from happening.[thebraintumourcharity.org]
  • Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, find and treat cancer. Find out more about clinical trials .[cancer.ca]
  • Fisher to discover a new pharmacological agent that could – with additional chemistry – lead to a new drug to prevent radiation-induced invasion of GBM cells.[nfcr.org]
  • Since the etiology of oligodendrogliomas is unknown, there is no preventive measure at present.[oncolink.org]
  • These are medicines help prevent or reduce swelling in the brain. Anticonvulsant medicines. These help to prevent or control any seizures. Shunt placement. A shunt is a small plastic tube.[cedars-sinai.edu]

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