Oophoritis is a term describing inflammation of the ovaries, and it is primarily considered as one of the variants of pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the upper genital tract in women. However, xanthomatous and autoimmune forms of infection and inflammation, respectively, have been recognized. Oophoritis can be life-threatening if progression to peritonitis or sepsis occurs, which is why an early diagnosis is vital.
Oophoritis is rarely used in literature as a distinct term for infection or inflammation of the ovaries. In most cases, it is described as a component of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the female upper genital tract that has spread from the cervix (cervicitis), endometrium (endometritis) and the fallopian tubes (salpingitis)    . In such instances, symptoms are high fever (> 38.5°C), abdominal and/or back pain, cervical discharge, dyspareunia, bleeding, vomiting and lower urinary tract infection (UTI) like signs - dysuria, polyuria, and an unpleasant odor   . Women msy be asymptomatic in the initial stages which may be a significant challenge for the diagnosis for the physician. Notable pathogens that can cause oophoritis are mumps (in approximately 5% of cases, with similar symptoms to PID), mycobacterium tuberculosis in its extrapulmonary forms (characterized by chronic pelvic pain, sterility or the development of ectopic pregnancy), whereas the term xanthomatous oophoritis is used to describe a chronic and destructive infection caused by escherichia coli, actinomycosis, proteus spp. or staphylococcus aureus   . Xanthomatous oophoritis, like other forms of infectious oophoritis, occurs as a complication of PID . Endometriosis, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, radiotherapy, the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD) and inborn errors of lipid metabolism are considered as risk factors . Apart from infections, an autoimmune form of oophoritis is recognized in the literature, most commonly seen in premature ovarian failure (POF) that presents with amenorrhea and hypoestrogenism in women of child-bearing age (usually younger than 40 years)  .
Entire Body System
gangrenous (anemia) (artery) (cellulitis) (dermatitis) (dry) (infective) (moist) (pemphigus) (septic) (skin) (stasis) (ulcer) 785.4 ovary (see also Salpingo-oophoritis) 614.2 Hematosalpinx 620.8 infectional (see also Salpingo-oophoritis) 614.2 Infection [icd9data.com]
[…] hydrothorax. ( 7337408 ) Kilkku P....Meurman L. 1981 7 Laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected salpingo-oophoritis. ( 6451175 ) Ledger W.J. 1980 8 [Chronic recurring salpingo-oophoritis]. ( 4497791 ) KulavskiA- V.A. 1974 9 Gas gangrene [malacards.org]
[…] year of non-draft ICD-10-CM) 2017 (effective 10/1/2016) : No change 2018 (effective 10/1/2017) : No change 2019 (effective 10/1/2018) : No change Diagnosis Index entries containing back-references to N70.92 : Necrosis, necrotic (ischemic) - see also Gangrene [icd10data.com]
- Fever of Unknown Origin
A 39-year-old woman with fever of unknown origin was admitted to our hospital. Whole body scintigrams with 67Ga-citrate showed an abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in the pelvic cavity. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Abdominal Pain
We report a 16-year-old girl with abdominal pain, ovarian cysts, and biopsy-proven eosinophilic oophoritis, which resulted in right oophorectomy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Case: We report a 16-year-old girl with abdominal pain, ovarian cysts, and biopsy-proven eosinophilic oophoritis, which resulted in right oophorectomy. [mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com]
Acute oophoritis symptoms Severe lower abdominal pain High fever and chills Vomiting Chronic oophoritis symptoms Fever Abdominal pain Lower back pain Malaise Oophoritis treatment Speedy treatment for oophoritis is essential, as the infection is often [baby-pedia.com]
The signs include: Lower abdominal pain The pain associated with Oophoritis occurs around the lower abdominal region on both sides, it is usually severe and can be confused with menstrual cramps. [babyns.com]
- Pelvic Pain
After 3 years of embolisation, the patient started having chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and polymenorrhagia along with inability to conceive. Abdominal examination showed 16 weeks size mass arising from the pelvis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Causes · Bacteria, During abortion · Tuberculosis, Pelvic infection Signs and symptoms · Pelvic pain, Vaginal discharge · Fever, Headache · Nausea and vomiting · Irregular menses Diagnosis test · History taking ,Physical examination · X-ray pelvic area [disease-1.blogspot.com]
This can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain, abscesses, and other serious problems. PID is the most common preventable cause of infertility in the United States. [icdlist.com]
- Secondary Amenorrhea
With corticosteroid therapy, the percentage decreased to 2 percent and menses resumed after secondary amenorrhea of two years' duration. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Its symptoms are: Primary amenorrhea (menstruation has never occurred); secondary amenorrhea (menstruation appeared at puberty but subsequently stopped) ; infertility and sex hormone deficiency Related Journals of Autoimmune Oophoritis Journal of Autoimmune [imedpub.com]
Signs and symptoms may include: never starting menstruation (primary amenorrhea), stopping menstruation (secondary amenorrhea), infertility, and sex hormone deficiency. An ovarian laparoscopy biopsy can be used to diagnose this condition. [diseaseinfosearch.org]
Abstract One cause of secondary oligomenorrhea is ovarian infection. A rare type of infection related to the disturbance of menstrual function is mumps oophoritis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gloor, Jean Hurlimann American journal of clinical pathology 1984 A 43-year-old para 3 woman presented with a six-year history of progressive oligomenorrhea and hypomenorrhea. A total abdominal… (More) [semanticscholar.org]
[…] destruction of luteinised granulosa cells (H and E, 400) Click here to view Figure 7: Primordial follicle devoid of inflammatory response, surrounded by unremarkable stroma (H and E, 200) Click here to view Autoimmune oophoritis typically presents with oligomenorrhea [ijpmonline.org]
There are quite a few symptoms associated with this diseases, and some of these symptoms are pelvic pain, pain in the abdominal region, fever, vaginal discharge, chills, dyspareunia, vomiting and nausea. [medigoo.com]
In such instances, symptoms are high fever (> 38.5°C), abdominal and/or back pain, cervical discharge, dyspareunia, bleeding, vomiting and lower urinary tract infection (UTI) like signs - dysuria, polyuria, and an unpleasant odor. [symptoma.com]
To make the diagnosis of oophoritis, it is imperative to conduct a thorough patient history that will note the appearance and course of symptoms, as well as risk factors and preexisting conditions that may predispose women to an infection  . A detailed physical examination should follow, with an emphasis on the inspection and palpation of the abdomen, especially the right upper quadrant, and a complete gynecological exam (including bimanual and a vaginal speculum exam that will inspect the cervix, cervical motion, and assess the presence of a pelvic mass that may point to an abscess)  . Uterine, adnexal, or cervical motion tenderness, together with high fever and abdominal pain are hallmarks of PID and oophoritis. The diagnosis is often made solely on clinical grounds, but the use of laboratory and imaging studies are used for confirmation  . A complete blood count (CBC) will almost always show leukocytosis, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are important inflammatory parameters that are frequently elevated  . Abdominal (or sometimes vaginal) ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can all be used to identify the exact stage of PID and confirm oophoritis   . An extensive microbiological investigation, however, is essential in women with suspected infection of the upper genital tract. Cultivation of cervicovaginal discharge, serology testing (if suspicion toward mumps exists), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing can be used to identify the microorganism responsible for the infection   .
- Lymphocytic Infiltrate
The ovaries are cystic macroscopically, with a lymphocytic infiltrate in the steroidogenic theca cells. The immune infiltrate results in low estradiol levels and a compensatory increase in FSH levels. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
infiltration Destruction of theca cells with preservation of granulosa cells (that produce low amounts of estradiol because of lack of substrates) results in a subsequent increase in FSH levels, which stimulates viable granulosa cells to produce increased [pathologyoutlines.com]
In a second, delayed phase, the activation of CD4 T cells results in a lymphocytic infiltration of the ovary that occurs in parallel with a progressive decrease in fertility and ovarian function ( 37 ). [academic.oup.com]
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