Oophoritis is a term describing inflammation of the ovaries, and it is primarily considered as one of the variants of pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the upper genital tract in women. However, xanthomatous and autoimmune forms of infection and inflammation, respectively, have been recognized. Oophoritis can be life-threatening if progression to peritonitis or sepsis occurs, which is why an early diagnosis is vital.
Oophoritis is rarely used in literature as a distinct term for infection or inflammation of the ovaries. In most cases, it is described as a component of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the female upper genital tract that has spread from the cervix (cervicitis), endometrium (endometritis) and the fallopian tubes (salpingitis)    . In such instances, symptoms are high fever (> 38.5°C), abdominal and/or back pain, cervical discharge, dyspareunia, bleeding, vomiting and lower urinary tract infection (UTI) like signs - dysuria, polyuria, and an unpleasant odor   . Women msy be asymptomatic in the initial stages which may be a significant challenge for the diagnosis for the physician. Notable pathogens that can cause oophoritis are mumps (in approximately 5% of cases, with similar symptoms to PID), mycobacterium tuberculosis in its extrapulmonary forms (characterized by chronic pelvic pain, sterility or the development of ectopic pregnancy), whereas the term xanthomatous oophoritis is used to describe a chronic and destructive infection caused by escherichia coli, actinomycosis, proteus spp. or staphylococcus aureus   . Xanthomatous oophoritis, like other forms of infectious oophoritis, occurs as a complication of PID . Endometriosis, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, radiotherapy, the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD) and inborn errors of lipid metabolism are considered as risk factors . Apart from infections, an autoimmune form of oophoritis is recognized in the literature, most commonly seen in premature ovarian failure (POF) that presents with amenorrhea and hypoestrogenism in women of child-bearing age (usually younger than 40 years)  .
Entire Body System
gangrenous (anemia) (artery) (cellulitis) (dermatitis) (dry) (infective) (moist) (pemphigus) (septic) (skin) (stasis) (ulcer) 785.4 ovary (see also Salpingo-oophoritis) 614.2 Hematosalpinx 620.8 infectional (see also Salpingo-oophoritis) 614.2 Infection [icd9data.com]
[…] hydrothorax. ( 7337408 ) Kilkku P....Meurman L. 1981 7 Laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected salpingo-oophoritis. ( 6451175 ) Ledger W.J. 1980 8 [Chronic recurring salpingo-oophoritis]. ( 4497791 ) KulavskiA- V.A. 1974 9 Gas gangrene [malacards.org]
[…] year of non-draft ICD-10-CM) 2017 (effective 10/1/2016) : No change 2018 (effective 10/1/2017) : No change 2019 (effective 10/1/2018) : No change Diagnosis Index entries containing back-references to N70.92 : Necrosis, necrotic (ischemic) - see also Gangrene [icd10data.com]
- Fever of Unknown Origin
A 39-year-old woman with fever of unknown origin was admitted to our hospital. Whole body scintigrams with 67Ga-citrate showed an abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in the pelvic cavity. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Abdominal Pain
We report a 16-year-old girl with abdominal pain, ovarian cysts, and biopsy-proven eosinophilic oophoritis, which resulted in right oophorectomy. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Case: We report a 16-year-old girl with abdominal pain, ovarian cysts, and biopsy-proven eosinophilic oophoritis, which resulted in right oophorectomy. [mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com]
The signs include: Lower abdominal pain The pain associated with Oophoritis occurs around the lower abdominal region on both sides, it is usually severe and can be confused with menstrual cramps. [babyns.com]
Acute oophoritis symptoms Severe lower abdominal pain High fever and chills Vomiting Chronic oophoritis symptoms Fever Abdominal pain Lower back pain Malaise Oophoritis treatment Speedy treatment for oophoritis is essential, as the infection is often [baby-pedia.com]
- Pelvic Pain
Causes · Bacteria, During abortion · Tuberculosis, Pelvic infection Signs and symptoms · Pelvic pain, Vaginal discharge · Fever, Headache · Nausea and vomiting · Irregular menses Diagnosis test · History taking ,Physical examination · X-ray pelvic area [disease-1.blogspot.com]
After 3 years of embolisation, the patient started having chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and polymenorrhagia along with inability to conceive. Abdominal examination showed 16 weeks size mass arising from the pelvis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
This can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain, abscesses, and other serious problems. PID is the most common preventable cause of infertility in the United States. [icdlist.com]
Symptoms and Signs Oophoritis symptoms are similar to general symptoms of pelvic inflammatory diseases, and may include: pelvic pain; lower back pain; fever; side tenderness; as well as tenderness on internal examination. [dianamossop.com]
- Adnexal Tenderness
Empirical antibiotic treatment is recommended for patients with otherwise unexplained uterine or adnexal tenderness and cervical motion tenderness, according to guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Antibiotic regimens [emedicine.com]
Abstract One cause of secondary oligomenorrhea is ovarian infection. A rare type of infection related to the disturbance of menstrual function is mumps oophoritis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gloor, Jean Hurlimann American journal of clinical pathology 1984 A 43-year-old para 3 woman presented with a six-year history of progressive oligomenorrhea and hypomenorrhea. A total abdominal… (More) [semanticscholar.org]
[…] destruction of luteinised granulosa cells (H and E, ×400) Click here to view Figure 7: Primordial follicle devoid of inflammatory response, surrounded by unremarkable stroma (H and E, ×200) Click here to view Autoimmune oophoritis typically presents with oligomenorrhea [ijpmonline.org]
In such instances, symptoms are high fever (> 38.5°C), abdominal and/or back pain, cervical discharge, dyspareunia, bleeding, vomiting and lower urinary tract infection (UTI) like signs - dysuria, polyuria, and an unpleasant odor. [symptoma.com]
There are quite a few symptoms associated with this diseases, and some of these symptoms are pelvic pain, pain in the abdominal region, fever, vaginal discharge, chills, dyspareunia, vomiting and nausea. [medigoo.com]
To make the diagnosis of oophoritis, it is imperative to conduct a thorough patient history that will note the appearance and course of symptoms, as well as risk factors and preexisting conditions that may predispose women to an infection  . A detailed physical examination should follow, with an emphasis on the inspection and palpation of the abdomen, especially the right upper quadrant, and a complete gynecological exam (including bimanual and a vaginal speculum exam that will inspect the cervix, cervical motion, and assess the presence of a pelvic mass that may point to an abscess)  . Uterine, adnexal, or cervical motion tenderness, together with high fever and abdominal pain are hallmarks of PID and oophoritis. The diagnosis is often made solely on clinical grounds, but the use of laboratory and imaging studies are used for confirmation  . A complete blood count (CBC) will almost always show leukocytosis, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are important inflammatory parameters that are frequently elevated  . Abdominal (or sometimes vaginal) ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can all be used to identify the exact stage of PID and confirm oophoritis   . An extensive microbiological investigation, however, is essential in women with suspected infection of the upper genital tract. Cultivation of cervicovaginal discharge, serology testing (if suspicion toward mumps exists), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing can be used to identify the microorganism responsible for the infection   .
- Staphylococcus Aureus
Purulent material was obtained from the cystic masses, which grew Staphylococcus aureus. Histological examination of right-sided cystic mass revealed a simple cyst of the ovary. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
aureus, Salmonella More Details typhi can be considered in the pathogenesis of xanthogranulomatous oophoritis. [ijhas.in]
- Salmonella Typhi
The most accepted theory is of infection which is supported by clinical evidence of infection and growth of bacteria such as E.Coli, Bacteroides fragilis, Proteus and Salmonella typhi from the affected tissue by culture [ 11, 13 ]. [casereports.in]
- Lymphocytic Infiltrate
The ovaries are cystic macroscopically, with a lymphocytic infiltrate in the steroidogenic theca cells. The immune infiltrate results in low estradiol levels and a compensatory increase in FSH levels. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] and plasma cells infiltrate developing follicles and corpora lutea but not primordial follicles Preservation of granulosa cells Microscopic (histologic) images Images hosted on other servers : Lymphocytic oophoritis Differential diagnosis Other causes [pathologyoutlines.com]
In a second, delayed phase, the activation of CD4 + T cells results in a lymphocytic infiltration of the ovary that occurs in parallel with a progressive decrease in fertility and ovarian function ( 37 ). [academic.oup.com]
Treatment is aimed at symptom relief with further investigation needed to assess treatment options such as immunosuppression. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
During treatment and post treatment, douching and abstinence of sexual activities is advised until the condition has resolved. Surgical treatment Surgical treatment is applied if the medical treatment described above does not resolve the problem. [babyns.com]
Inpatient treatment is required for patients who (1) have already failed outpatient treatment, (2) are pregnant, (3) are infected with HIV, or (4) have evidence of a TOA. [www1.cgmh.org.tw]
The prognosis depends upon the extent and character of the inflammation, and upon the diseases with which the inflammation happens to be complicated. [chestofbooks.com]
Prognosis - Autoimmune oophoritis Not supplied. Treatment - Autoimmune oophoritis No immunosuppressive has been proven safe and effective by prospective randomized placebo-controlled study. [checkorphan.org]
The prognosis is difficult to evaluate given the rarity of this condition, but some patients may resume normal menses after therapy. ,  To conclude, although the condition is rare, AIO must be recognized histologically as it leads to ovarian failure [ijpmonline.org]
[…] to the underlying etiology. [icd10data.com]
Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK: The etiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Trans Dis 6: 224, 1979 CrossRef Google Scholar 23. Eschenbach DA, Buchanan TM, Pollock HM, et al.: Polymicrobial etiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. [link.springer.com]
HLA complex Selective mononuclear cell infiltration into the theca layer of developing follicles of the ovary Association with other autoimmune diseases such as Addison disease, autoimmune thyroiditis and type I diabetes mellitus Epidemiology If normal [pathologyoutlines.com]
Epidemiology The age specific incidence of spontaneous primary ovarian failure is around 1 case in every 250 women by the age of 35 years, and 1 case in every 100 women by the age of 40 years. [xpertdox.com]
Eschenbach DA: Epidemiology and diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol 55: 1425, 1980 Google Scholar 39. [link.springer.com]
Because little is known about the pathophysiology of human autoimmune oophoritis, experimental animal models have been used to gain insight into possible mechanisms [ 22 23 ]. [my.vocabularysize.com]
Pathophysiology: Infection ascends from bacterial colonization of the cervix and extends to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovary. [www1.cgmh.org.tw]
This finding is of high relevance because it allows us to conclude that the pathophysiology of autoimmune oophoritis is distinct from that of other forms of ovarian insufficiency. [academic.oup.com]
Pathophysiology Most cases of PID are presumed to occur in 2 stages. The first stage is acquisition of a vaginal or cervical infection. This infection is often sexually transmitted and may be asymptomatic. [emedicine.com]
Prophylaxis is aimed at preventing the causative agents from penetrating the body during childbirth or abortion. Gonorrheal and tubercular salpingo-oophoritis are prevented by following the general rules for controlling gonorrhea and tuberculosis. [encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com]
PID is the most common preventable cause of infertility in the United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other bacteria can also cause it. [icdlist.com]
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