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Opportunistic Infection


Presentation

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually presents with a wide range of manifestations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pathologist
  • Because serological diagnosis is often insufficient, pathologists must be aware of the association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and leishmaniasis. Diagnosis depends on detection of the parasite in submitted specimens.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Collapse
  • While HIV is the culprit, most people who die of AIDS do not die of HIV, per se, but from the numerous infections that the body can no longer control due to the collapse of the immune system.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Lymphocyte Disorder
  • BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, generally those with underlying T-lymphocyte disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Respiratory Distress
  • All patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and needed mechanical ventilation. In three patients, the test for cytomegalovirus was also positive in the bronchoalveolar lavage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hearing Impairment
  • Abstract We report on a 69-year-old woman who presented with myalgia, hearing impairment, fever, night sweats, weight loss, muscular weakness, paresthesia, hypesthesia, and hypalgesia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Myalgia
  • Abstract We report on a 69-year-old woman who presented with myalgia, hearing impairment, fever, night sweats, weight loss, muscular weakness, paresthesia, hypesthesia, and hypalgesia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aphasia
  • However, 1 week after admission, motor aphasia and mild right hemiparesis reappeared. MRI showed that the lesion involving the left cingulate gyrus expanded in size, and revealed an abnormal signal intensity lesion in the left corona radiata.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Alteration of Consciousness
  • Common neurological signs included multiple cranial nerve palsies (5/7; 71.4%) and alteration of consciousness (3/7; 42.9%). The median duration of the symptoms prior to admission was 60 days (range 8-180 days).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Paresthesia
  • Abstract We report on a 69-year-old woman who presented with myalgia, hearing impairment, fever, night sweats, weight loss, muscular weakness, paresthesia, hypesthesia, and hypalgesia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Liver Biopsy
  • All had liver biopsies revealing histologic evidence of alcoholic hepatitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • For the simultaneous treatment, IVIG-CPM was added to Pred/CsA by means of infusion of IVIG on five consecutive days per month, followed by CPM infusion on the ninth day after the last IVIG administration. The treatment was repeated for four months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Common prophylaxis treatments include the following: [11] Treatment [ edit ] Treatment depends on the type of opportunistic infection, but usually involves different antibiotics.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prognosis

  • Low CSF viral load and a specific cellular immune response in blood and CSF are associated with a better prognosis. Among HIV-infected patients, mortality is greater in those who have CD4 cells/μL.[elsevier.es]
  • Strategies for Reducing Myocardial Infarction Rates in HIV Patients - Mark Mascolini (03/23/18) HIV Diagnosis After Age 50 Often Delayed Despite Clear Clues - Should age-associated, Non-AIDS conditions Invite HIV Testing, YES - Mark Mascolini (03/23/18) Prognosis[natap.org]
  • Lorigan P, Woll PJ, O'Brien ME, et al: Randomized phase III trial of dose-dense chemotherapy supported by whole-blood hematopoietic progenitors in better-prognosis small-cell lung cancer.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • Identification of a viral etiology in patients with atypical ANCA-associated vasculitides may lead to different, less aggressive treatment approaches, including antiviral therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the variability of host-etiological agent interactions and difficulties in the diagnosis of some OIs contribute to a lack of data that demonstrate consistent evidence of the effects of OIs (7) (10).[scielo.br]

Epidemiology

  • We discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of C. pelliculosa, a non-albicans species which is rarely associated with disease, and review current literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation.[scielo.br]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Article Navigation 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Reprints or correspondence: Dr. John T. Brooks, National Centers for HIV, Hepatitis, Tuberculosis and STD Prevention, Div. of HIV/AIDS Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd.[doi.org]
  • [ edit ] Since opportunistic infections can cause severe disease, much emphasis is placed on measures to prevent infection.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • HIV prevention bulletin: medical advice for persons who inject illicit drugs - May 9, 1997. Centers for Disease C, Prevention. CDC Health Information for international travel, 2012.[aidsinfo.nih.gov]
  • Recommendations in this report cover: Preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens; Preventing disease; Discontinuing primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; Treating disease; When to start ART in the setting of an acute OI; Monitoring for[aidsetc.org]
  • Guidelines for The Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Cryptococcal Disease in HIV-Infected Adults, Adolescents and Children. 2018 Mar. [Medline]. Sadiq U, Guzman N. HIV, Prevention Of Opportunistic Infections. 2018 Jan. [Medline]. [Full Text].[medscape.com]

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