Optic neuritis is the inflammation of the optic nerve. It may mainly involve the optic nerve head (papillitis), or only the posterior part of the nerve sparing the optic nerve head (retrobulbar neuritis).
Optic neuritis may be asymptomatic or may present with the following symptoms :
- Visual loss. Sudden, progressive and profound visual loss.
- Pain above or behind the eye that increases on ocular movements, especially when looking up and down. The pain may last for several weeks.
- Visual difficulty is exacerbated in bright light.
- Impairment of color vision leading to patients complain of reduced vividness of colors or things looking “washed out”.
- Movement phosphenes and sound induced phosphenes. Patient complains of flashes or flickering of light.
- Uhthoff’s phenomenon: Episodic transient aggravation of visual loss on exertion and on exposure to heat, which recovers on resting or moving away from the heat.
- Pulfrich’s phenomenon: Depth perception may be impaired, especially for moving objects.
- Difficulty in vison in low light conditions.
- Some patients may have normal central vision with complaints of loss of peripheral vision to one side in the superior or inferior fields.
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A 49-year-old Caucasian woman presented with subacute headache and right eye pain associated with scotoma, blurred vision and photophobia. MRI was suggestive of optic neuritis of the right optic nerve and she was treated with steroids. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A 35-year-old woman with acute onset of left-eye pain and vision decline. Axial, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image demonstrates bilateral periventricular white matter lesions. [emedicine.com]
The study found that the two most common symptoms are vision loss and eye pain. Vision loss in optic neuritis typically occurs over several hours to days, and vision reaches a nadir within 1 to 2 weeks. [mdedge.com]
Two pregnant women developed one-eye blurring vision within three weeks after Tdap vaccination. Neurophtalmologic and MR examination confirmed an unilateral optic neuritis without evidence of underlying disease. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
If some or all of the nerve fibers become inflamed and do not function properly, blurred vision results. With optic neuritis, the nerve tissue becomes swollen and the nerve fibers do not work properly. [wgecc.com]
lesions; (4) at least two of the following: a relative afferent pupillary defect, a color vision deficit, a nerve fiber bundle defect on field examination, and a swollen or pale optic disc. [doi.org]
At later stages the disk margins are blurred and may be slightly elevated simulating papilledema. Refs: vaugn, d and asbury, t: general ophthamology, 8th edition, 1977 ICD-9-CM Volume 2 Index entries containing back-references to 377.30 : [icd9data.com]
At later stages the disk margins are blurred and may be slightly elevated simulating papilledema. Refs: vaugn, d and asbury, t: general ophthamology, 8th edition, 1977. [icd10data.com]
[…] tooth abscess in the upper jaw, syphilis, Lyme disease, herpes zoster), autoimmune disorders (e.g. lupus, neurosarcoidosis, neuromyelitis optica), methanol poisoning, Vitamin B12 deficiency, and diabetes, or an injury to the eye.Less common causes are: papilledema [en.wikipedia.org]
A more thorough list includes: Papillitis (inflammation of the head of the optic nerve) Retrobulbar neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve sparing the head) Compression of the optic nerve Papilledema (optic nerve disturbances due to increased intracranial [clinicaladvisor.com]
About this article Received 04 September 2003 Accepted 04 September 2003 Published 08 November 2004 Issue Date 01 November 2004 DOI Keywords diagnosis optic nerve diseases signs and symptoms Further reading Decision Support System for Detection of Papilledema [doi.org]
More than 1 year after her initial presentation, the patient developed right facial weakness and slurred speech, and shortly thereafter suffered a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Early symptoms that require investigation include symptoms from multiple sclerosis (twitching, lack of coordination, slurred speech, frequent episodes of partial vision loss or blurred vision), episodes of "disturbed/blackened" rather than blurry indicate [en.wikipedia.org]
A 25-year-old woman presented with a fever, headache, vomiting and somnolence. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple lesions in the cerebellum, brainstem, cerebral cortex and subcortex. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The diagnosis of acute demyelinating optic neuritis is based on the history, symptoms and clinical signs from the following eye tests:
- Visual acuity: Visual acuity worsens over several hours,days or even minutes and may range from 20/20 to no light perception on examination.
- Visual fields: A central scotoma is common. Less frequently, an arcuate scotoma, a superior or inferior altitudinal scotoma, peripheral constriction, a cecocentral scotoma, and bitemporal or a left or right hemianopic defect may be seen.
- Contrast sensitivity and color vision: Both reduced, sometimes more severely than the loss of visual acuity. Color vision testing is preferably done with the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test.
- Pupillary examination: The relative afferent pupillary defect is almost always present in anterior (swollen disc) or retrobulbar neuritis, unless there is a coexisting optic neuropathy in the fellow eye or other causes of visual loss unrelated to an optic neuropathy.
- Fundus examination: Lesions that are adjacent to the optic nerve head cause papillitis (anterior optic neuritis) with minimal blood vessel enlargement and rarely peripapillary hemorrhages. Vitritis is present in anterior optic neuritis caused by infections or inflammations and intermediate uveitis with multiple sclerosis. Retrobulbar neuritis does not produce papillitis. The presence of peripheral retinal venous sheathing has been shown to be correlated with the development of multiple sclerosis .
- Other diagnostic tests are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and serological studies, done in order to determine the cause in atypical cases and the prognosis or risk for subsequent development of multiple sclerosis in cases presenting with only optic neuritis. Contrast MRI of the brain is done to detect lesions in the white matter  .
Lyme disease is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The most commonly affected areas include the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system. Lyme optic neuritis is a challenging diagnosis and therefore often underreported. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Bartonella Henseale (cat scratch disease) and Borrelia Burgdorferi (Lyme disease) are usual suspects [ 98 ] ( Figure 1 0). Conclusion The diagnosis of ON is mainly clinical. [omicsonline.org]
In a patient having the first attack of acute demyelinating optic neuritis, in the presence of two or more white matter lesions on MRI (3mm diameter or larger, at least one lesion periventricular or ovoid), the recommended treatments is one of these :
- Intravenous methylprednisolone (1g per day, single or divided doses, for 3 days) followed by oral prednisone (1mg/kg per day for 11 days, then 4-day taper).
- Interferonβ-1a (Avonex 30μg intramuscularly once a week).
- Interferonβ-1a (Rebif 22μg subcutaneously once a week).
- Betaseron (250μg subcutaneously every other day).
In a patient with optic neuritis having fewer than two MRI white matter lesions, and in patients with established diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and in patients with unilateral and severe visual loss or bilateral visual loss, treatment is intravenous methylprednisolone treatment followed by oral prednisone (as described above). This will hasten visual recovery but not influence the final visual outcome.
Intravenous methylprednisolone 1000 mg/day for 5 consecutive days followed by oral prednisone taper for optic neuritis with neuromyelitis optica.
Based on findings from the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial, oral prednisone alone (without prior treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone) may increase the risk of recurrent optic neuritis and should be avoided.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents may be prescribed for disabling ocular pain.
Treatment of the specific cancer in paraneoplastic optic neuropathy patients with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
Even with no treatment, most patients of optic neuritis start to recover their lost vision within 2-3 weeks of the onset of symptoms, achieving the maximal improvement within 1-2 months or at the most within a year. Final visual outcome has been correlated with the initial severity of visual loss. In spite of visual recovery, patients continue to experience subtle visual problems which can be objectively documented as persistent defects in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, visual field, visual-evoked potential and stereopsis.
In about 20% of patients, multiple sclerosis is associated with optic neruritis at the onset itself. Around 40% of affected individuals will develop multiple sclerosis at later stages. Recurrent episodes of optic neuritis in the initially affected or fellow eye may occur and the risk of recurrence is twofold greater in patients who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in the next ten years than in patients who do not develop multiple sclerosis .
These are the etiological factors associated with optic neuritis.
- Acute demyelinating disorders: The most common form of optic neuritis is acute demyelinating optic neuritis, which is often associated with multiple sclerosis. Other demyelinating conditions include neuromyelitis optica and diffuse periaxial encephalitis of Schilder.
- Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy
- Parainfectious: It can occasionally result from a local infectious process involving the orbits or paranasal sinuses. It may occur in association with systemic infections like measles, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), herpes zoster, cat scratch fever, primary or secondary syphilis, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, HIV and cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS .
- Autoimmune disorders: Behcet’s disease and systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Malignancies: Leukemia, intraocular lymphoma, malignant melanoma and metastatic lesions spreading to the optic nerve.
- Inflammatory disorders: Sarcoidosis.
- Post vaccination: It may also occur following immunization with rabies vaccine, Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) and tetanus toxoid.
- Paraneoplastic syndrome: Acute demyelinating optic neuritis, without malignant invasion of the nerve itself, has been seen in bronchial carcinoma, oat cell carcinoma and lymphomas .
The annual incidence of optic neuritis is approximately 3–5 per 100,000 per year, while the prevalence is 115 per 100,000. The majority of patients who develop optic neuritis are between the ages of 20 and 50 years. Women are affected more commonly than men (2:1). In most cases, the pathogenesis of optic neuritis is inflammatory demyelination, whether or not multiple sclerosis is diagnosed clinically. Many cases where optic neuritis is the only presenting feature later are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis .
Optic neuritis is an inflammation of one or both optic nerves, often associated with multiple sclerosis and demyelinating diseases. Adults and women are more affected. It clinically presents with the triad of reduced vision, ocular or orbital pain and impaired colour vision. Nearly full visual recovery over time is common but residual visual defects may persist. Intravenous steroids are given in severe or bilateral cases to speed up recovery. Patients with an isolated incident of optic neuritis have better final visual outcome, whereas the prognosis is worse for patients with recurrent attacks or multiple sclerosis .
Cause: Optic neuritis is often associated with multiple sclerosis. It is believed that optic neuritis may have an autoimmune cause, where the body mistakenly destroys the nerve sheath (known as myelin) leading to nerve damage. Optic neuritis can also be associated with infections, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune diseases.
- Pain above or behind the eyes, it may increase on looking up or down.
- Sudden decrease in vision that rapidly increases over hours or days. You may notice a loss of vividness of colors.
- Sensation of flashes or flickering lights.
- The vision loss may be aggravated when you are very tired or when you take a hot shower or in presence of very bright light.
Diagnosis: The eye doctor will take a detailed history of your symptoms and medical conditions that you and your close relatives have. A detailed examination of your eyes will be done, including an examination of the inside and back of the eyes with an instrument called ophthalmoscope. Magnetic resonance scans of the brain and eyes are often required. Blood tests may be required to rule out other diseases and infections.
Treatment and follow-up: Optic neuritis often improves spontaneously and a large number of people regain their vision almost completely in a year. The doctor may give you steroid medication through veins. Steroids reduce the inflammation in the optic nerve and speed up the visual recovery, but do not improve the extent of lost vision that you will recover. Steroids will also be given if multiple sclerosis is suspected. You may have repeat attacks of optic neuritis in future. Presence of multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica leads to poor prognosis for long term visual recovery and preservation.
- Craig H. Smith. Optic Neuritis. In: Miller, Neil R.; Newman, Nancy J., eds. Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2005:293-347.
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- The clinical profile of optic neuritis. Experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Optic Neuritis Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 1991; 109:1673.