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Oral Candidiasis

Candidiases Oral


Presentation

  • Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present study was to perform biochemical, morphological, exoenzyme analyses of Candida species and the molecular identification (DNA) of C. albicans in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The circumstances and progression noted in this case led to the recommendation that an aggressive screening for AIDS should be performed on patients at high risk for this syndrome who present with oral Candida infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • A 42-year-old man who used intravenous drugs had oral candidiasis and weight loss. Careful examination led to a diagnosis of AIDS. The patient subsequently died of disseminated cryptococcosis, systemic candidiasis, and polymicrobial bacteremia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • loss or weight gain Smoking Whites and European Jews Hormonal contraception Diets high in microparticles, sweet, fatty or refined foods Industrialized country Typical history and symptoms Skip lesions on biopsy Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies[wikidoc.org]
Plethora
  • A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysphagia
  • In the OIRR group, 65.2 percent of patients who experienced dysphagia developed oral candidiasis, compared with only 10 percent in the ONIRR group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Data were recorded on the following secondary outcomes if present: relief of pain, amount of analgesia, relief of dysphagia, incidence of systemic infection, duration of stay in hospital (days), cost of oral care, patient quality of life, death, use of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The outcomes were eradication of oral candidiasis, dysphagia, systemic infection, amount of analgesia, length of hospitalisation, cost and patient quality of life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients may complain of tenderness, burning, and dysphagia, especially if oro- pharyngeal candidiasis is associated with œsophageal infections. How is it Diagnosed? The diagnosis is usually clinical.[exodontia.info]
Bad Taste
  • taste), more frequent snacking, xerogenic medications, and elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations have also been significantly associated with decreased salivary flow.[dentalcare.com]
  • Symptoms The first symptoms may be a bad taste in the mouth and decreased taste sensation. Thrush causes white patches, with a texture similar to cottage cheese, inside the mouth.[colgate.com]
  • .  Any mucosal surface may be involved,  erythematous or white areas often develop beneath partial or complete dentures (areas where normal cleansing mechanisms are poor)  A prodromal symptom of a  rapid onset of a bad taste and the loss of taste[slideshare.net]
Coated Tongue
  • tongue Gingival erythema: linear Gingivitis: ulcerative Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: oral ulcers Herpetic gingivostomatitis[hiv.va.gov]
Photosensitivity
  • OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been used to combat local infections, and it consists of the combination of a photosensitizer, a light source, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill microbial cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperpigmentation
  • The four commonest lesions were oral candidiasis (24.9%, CI   20.6-29.7%), melanotic hyperpigmentation (17.3%, CI   13.7-21.7%), kaposi sarcoma (9.3%, CI   6.6-12.8%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (5.5%, CI   3.5-8.4%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Cytopathology to rule out oral candidiasis should be used in the routine medical workup of patients with psoriasis. Copyright 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • We report the cases of three patients in whom the acute retroviral illness was characterized by transient oral candidiasis and unexplained high lactate dehydrogenase values, with or without transient pulmonary infiltrate, in the context of an acute febrile[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • RESULTS: The mucoadhesive tablets (n 171) did not show inferiority to itraconazole (n 172) in the treatment of OC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Furthermore, treatment with nystatin pastilles for 4 weeks seemed to have better clinical efficacy than treatment for 2 weeks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the small number of subjects and the lack of follow-up to determine the development of psoriasis after treatment for oral candidiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To assess the effectiveness of interventions (which may include placebo or no treatment) for the prevention of oral candidiasis for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the attitude of Spanish dentists toward the oral treatment of candidiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis of oral thrush With effective and appropriate treatment, the prognosis of oral thrush is good. However, relapse of the disease can occur if the underlying predisposing factors have not been treated.[myvmc.com]
  • IDSA clinical practice guidelines 2016 Outlook and prognosis Usually excellent. May be associated with oesophageal candidiasis, which does not resolve with topical therapy.[life-worldwide.org]
  • In most cases, the prognosis for recovery is very good. Defining Oral Candidiasis Oral candidiasis is a fungus and was first isolated in the sputum of a tuberculous patient in 1844.[naturalremedies.org]

Etiology

  • To prevent prolongation of undiagnosed cases, it is essential that the dental clinicians have an understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common etiological agent was Candida albicans (37 isolates), with 23 (62.2%) in the denture group and 14 (37.8%) (control group).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common etiology of oral candidiasis in individuals with diabetes is xerostomia, and the condition sometimes appears in patients with poor glycemic control.[dentalcare.com]
  • After elimination of the etiologic factor, lesions will resolve in 7-14 days. Smear exam and periodic acid-Schiff staining will be negative for yeast forms or hyphae. Reactive keratosis Lesions are usually asymptomatic.[online.epocrates.com]
  • ., burning, tingling, metallic/foul taste) Investigation Identify Possible Etiology Ask about the patient’s medical/dental history.[jcda.ca]

Epidemiology

  • The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the epidemiology of candidiasis, with many studies reporting a decrease in prevalence. However, some studies report rare cases of increased prevalence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Using a retrospective, cross-sectional, epidemiological design, data on race, gender, age, systemic diseases, oral candidiasis type and location, symptoms, and harmful habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption were collected.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This paper offers an analysis of the scientific literature on the epidemiological aspects of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive children in the combination antiretroviral therapy era.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In a large epidemiological study, several oral soft tissue lesions were found to be more prevalent in subjects with T1D.[dentalcare.com]
  • The concept of oral candidosis as a mixed candidal-bacterial biofilm infection has changed our understanding of its epidemiology and diagnosis as well as approach to its treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Thrush represents an overgrowth of yeast when either normal host immunity or normal host flora has been disrupted. Yeast overgrowth on the oral mucosa causes the epithelial cells to desquamate.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
  • Pathophysiology C albicans causes thrush when normal host immunity or normal host flora is disrupted. Overgrowth of yeast on the oral mucosa leads to desquamation of epithelial cells and accumulation of bacteria, keratin, and necrotic tissue.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Infections caused by Candida may affect numerous organ systems, such as the eyes, lungs, kidneys, heart, and CNS. Skin The most common manifestation of candidal infection is diaper dermatitis in infants.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Qazazi, Jun Sun and Ikuko Kato, Oral Microbiome: Potential Link to Systemic Diseases and Oral Cancer, Mechanisms Underlying Host-Microbiome Interactions in Pathophysiology of Human Diseases, 10.1007/978-1-4939-7534-1_9, (195-246), (2018).[doi.org]

Prevention

  • […] outcome - prevention of oral candidiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study explored oral candidiasis status after free flap surgery and its prevention through a prospective comparative study.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Probiotics have a preventative effect on oral candidiasis in the elderly. Copyright 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Different drugs are used to try and prevent this condition.[cochrane.org]

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