In orchitis, the patient experience mild to severe testicular pain and swelling. The other associated symptoms include fatigue, mylagias, fever, nausea, and severe headache. It is advisable to obtain the correct sexual history of the patients.
Testicular examination: Some of the observations that form a crucial part of the diagnosis of orchitis are the evaluation of testicular enlargement, and its tenderness. Other examinations include: induration of the testis, presence of erythematous or edematous scrotal skin, or enlarged epididymis.
Rectal examination: Patient with soft boggy prostate classifies as prostatitis and are often associated with epididymo-orchitis    .
The laboratory tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of orchitis. In sexually active males, the urethral cultures and gram-stain must be obtained to determine the presence of bacteria. Urinalysis and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) also helps to ascertain the extent of inflammation in the patient.
Mumps in patients can be diagnosed with assessment of medical history and serum immune-fluorescence antibody testing. Since the diagnosis of mumps can be made easily based on medical history and physical examination, it can be a good approach to diagnose orchitis associated with bacterial infection. Acute scrotum can be tested with the help of color Doppler ultrasonography.
Depending on the extent of orchitis, the treatment is scheduled. If the torsion (caused when the testicular blood vessels gets twisted) is observed, urgent surgery must be considered. In case of significant hydrocele, the urologist must evaluate the need of surgical tapping which is believed to relieve the pressure on the tunica. For uncomplicated orchitis, follow up care is advised.
For the management of viral orchitis, no medications are advised. However, for orchitis associated with epididymitis, appropriate antibiotics are prescribed. The patients who are less than 35 years of age and sexually active, ceftriaxone, doxycycline or azithromycin is advised. Patients who are older than 35 years, additional antibiotics in the form of fluoroquinolone or sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination are advised .
Early diagnosis and treatment of the disease can help preserve the testis from getting damaged. In case the testis does not return to its original size and pain persists, further testing must be performed at the earliest to rule out testicular cancer. Mumps orchitis cannot be treated and there is increased chance of such patients to become sterile .
When orchitis is caused by mumps, the patient may see the shrinking of their testicles, which is often referred to as testicular atrophy. Sometimes, orchitis may also cause infertility. There are other complications reported in such patients, such as chronic epididymitis, testicular infarction, or scrotal abscess. Some patients experience acute pain due to torsion which is considered a surgical emergency.
The most common cause of orchitis is mumps virus. In the patients affected by orchitis, there is an onset of scrotal pain and edema which is often acute. In most cases, since mumps infection is the most common cause of orchitis, the diagnosis of the disease is done in the emergency department based on the reported history of mumps infection along with a testicular edema.
In about 7 out of 10 cases, the mumps orchitis is presented unilaterally while in 30% of the cases, contralateral testicular involvement is observed.
The most common bacteria that cause such infections include: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In patients with immunecompromised conditions, the common etiologic agents are Candida albicans, Toxoplasma gondii, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae  .
Among patients with orchitis, 6 in every 10 patients have unilateral testicular atrophy. The chances of sterility in such patients are rare, and there is little evidence to suggest that this disease can develop into testicular tumor after an episode of orchitis.
80% of the patients with mumps orchitis are in the prepubertal age group (age<10 years). Since bacterial orchitis is associated with epididymitis, the age group that is affected is males older than 15 years. In patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, the chances of orchitis increases and the age group, thus affected is men with ages >50 years .
Orchitis is defined as the acute inflammation of the testis due to infection. Patient may observe an altered size of the testis, which can be small (testicular atrophy) or large (testicular enlargement). Patient can also experience tenderness in the testis or enlarged epididymis.
There can be excruciating pain in the scrotum or testicles in such patients. The cause of this distress is torsion which often is accompanied by pain. If there is a sudden pain in the scrotum or testis, seeking medical attention is mandatory.