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Orofacial Dyskinesia


Presentation

  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Sri Lankan man with a recent visit to South Africa presented with an acute febrile illness, cough and worsening dyspnoea with alveolar-interstitial infiltrates on chest radiography.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We report a child with a systemic biopterin synthesis defect due to an absence of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase who had an unusual presentation, with three episodes of coarse "rubral-like" tremor in arms and legs orofacial dyskinesia between[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Edentulous orofacial dyskinesia is a rare condition, characterized by involuntary rhythmic movements of the mandible and presents an embarrassing situation for the patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She presented these symptoms two times after two separate injections with an interval of 2 months. The case was reported to the Tunisian Centre of Pharmacovigilance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the case of a patient with orofacial dyskinesia secondary to treatment with phenytoin monotherapy. Right-handed male aged 80 years with a personal history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation.[elsevier.es]
Cough
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Sri Lankan man with a recent visit to South Africa presented with an acute febrile illness, cough and worsening dyspnoea with alveolar-interstitial infiltrates on chest radiography.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Oral Ulcers
  • He also had oral ulcers due to involuntary biting. Blood smear showed 20% acanthocytes. Nerve conduction demonstrated sensory axonal neuropathy. MRI was negative for white matter changes and caudate atrophy.[neurology.org]
Facial Grimacing
  • On day 4 of treatment, she experienced involuntary, rhythmic facial grimacing accompanied by periodic cervical muscular contractures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • grimacing (commonly involving lower facial muscles) Finger movement (piano playing movements) Rocking or thrusting of the pelvis (duck-like gait) Jaw swinging Repetitive chewing Rapid eye blinking Tongue thrusting Restlessness When TD is diagnosed, the[medlineplus.gov]
  • Facial grimacing. Repetitive tongue protrusion. Puckering, smacking and licking of the lips. Side-to-side motion of the jaw. Withdrawal of neuroleptic medications or other offending agent. Pharmacologic treatment.[pocketdentistry.com]
  • The physician should ask the patient to relax, and look for symptoms like facial grimacing, eye or lip movements, tics, respiratory irregularities, and tongue movements.[en.wikipedia.org]
Dystonia
  • Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is perhaps the most common of these and includes jaw opening, jaw closing, and jaw deviation dystonia.[link.springer.com]
  • Although asterixis, dystonia, and tremor have been described with carbamazepine (Tegretol), there is no report of orofacial dyskinesia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dystonia Dystonia is a movement disorder that causes involuntary contractions of your muscles. These contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements. Sometimes they are painful.[icdlist.com]
  • Our findings suggest that the quantitative assessment of perioral reflexes may provide information about the excitability of brainstem interneurons in cranial dystonia that is complementary to blink reflex studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Orofacial dyskinesia (video on the Neurology Web site at www.neurology.org ), oral mutilation, and feeding dystonia are typical of chorea-acanthocytosis. 1 Generalized seizures and axonal sensory neuropathy are associated. 2 AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors[neurology.org]
Tremor
  • Although asterixis, dystonia, and tremor have been described with carbamazepine (Tegretol), there is no report of orofacial dyskinesia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We report a child with a systemic biopterin synthesis defect due to an absence of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase who had an unusual presentation, with three episodes of coarse "rubral-like" tremor in arms and legs orofacial dyskinesia between[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases cause many movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Other causes include injuries, autoimmune diseases, infections and certain medicines.[icdlist.com]
  • Subtypes of tremors include tremors at rest, essential tremor, which is a postural tremor at either rest or activity and may be inherited, or tremor with movement (intention "kinetic" tremor).[encyclopedia.com]
  • G25.1 Drug-induced tremor G25.2 Other specified forms of tremor G25.4 Drug-induced chorea Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes.[icd10data.com]
Extrapyramidal Symptoms
  • Persistent emergent tardive dyskinesia was defined by the scores on the dyskinesia subscale of the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale. Among the 330 patients enrolled in the study, the mean age was 82.5 years.[aafp.org]
  • symptoms Distinguishing TD from other Movement disorders: o Youtube video demonstrates the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease o Youtube video demonstrates various TD symptoms and how to score them o Using forms and scoring techniques, it is easier to document[slideshare.net]
  • The low prevalence of extrapyramidal symptoms associated with atypical antipsychotics has led to their widespread use during the past decade.[journalofpsychiatryreform.com]
  • About two-thirds had no extrapyramidal symptoms. Approximately one-quarter had orofacial and generalized dyskinesia and 12% had orofacial and generalized dystonia, but half of patients showed a mixed presentation.[medpagetoday.com]
Choreoathetoid Movements
Tic Disorder
  • […] chorea Tardive dyskinesia Transient tic disorder [ Read More ][icdlist.com]
  • Tardive tourettism is a tic disorder featuring the same symptoms as Tourette syndrome . The two disorders are extremely close in nature and often can only be differentiated by the details of their respective onsets.[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

Plasmodium Falciparum
  • CONCLUSIONS: Plasmodium falciparum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae co-infection occurring in vivo manifests clinical features that are plausibly a result of the interaction between the two microorganisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • In most cases, they occur in older psychotic patients who are in institutions and in whom long-term treatment with antipsychotic drugs of the phenothiazine and butyrophenone groups is being carried out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She developed orofacial dyskinesia involving the tongue, lips, and facial muscles after treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report on a patient who developed orofacial dyskinesia 3 days after starting ofloxacin treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A 56-year-old man with a small glioblastoma multiforme in the right parasagittal region developed orofacial dyskinesia and slight writhing movement of his hands during treatment with phenytoin and phenobarbitone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The technique for treatment was described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • […] anti-psychotic medications, and some specific gastrointestinal drugs Please find comprehensive information on Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • This action on dopamine-related events provides a basis for a possible therapeutic action o... more The long-term prognosis of tardive dyskinesia (TD) has been insufficiently studied.[scinapse.io]
  • Symptoms - Tardive dyskinesia Causes - Tardive dyskinesia Prevention - Tardive dyskinesia Diagnosis - Tardive dyskinesia Prognosis - Tardive dyskinesia If diagnosed early, the condition may be reversed by stopping the drug that caused the symptoms.[checkorphan.org]
  • Typically, patients receive antiepileptic medications, and improvement of symptoms is usually associated with a good prognosis. If symptoms do not improve with antiepileptic medication(s), the prognosis is not favorable.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Prognosis The earlier the problem is noticed and treatment begun, the better chance there is that the abnormal movements will go away. Most patients have a noticeable improvement in their symptoms within a year and a half.[minddisorders.com]

Etiology

  • This article presents an overview of the etiology, pathophysiology, phenomenology, and treatment of tardive dyskinesia.[medlink.com]

Epidemiology

  • "Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia before and during the era of modern antipsychotic drugs". In Vinken, P. J.; Bruyn, G. W. Handbook of Clinical Neurology .[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia before and during the era of modern antipsychotic drugs. Tarsy D, Lungu C, Baldessarini RJ. Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;100:601-16.[journalofpsychiatryreform.com]
  • No adequate epidemiologic data exist regarding whether any particular psychiatric diagnosis constitutes a risk factor for the development of tardive reactions to medications; however, the duration of exposure to antipsychotics that is required to cause[pocketdentistry.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The syndrome parallels several of the features of clinical tardive dyskinesia, whose pathophysiology thus may not involve changes in the characteristics of striatal dopamine receptors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This type of dyskinesia may occur with no underlying striatal lesion and resolve when phenytoin is discontinued; its pathophysiological mechanism is unknown. References [1] H.A. Peters, P.I. Eichmann, J.M. Price, F.A. Kozelka, H.H.[elsevier.es]
  • This article presents an overview of the etiology, pathophysiology, phenomenology, and treatment of tardive dyskinesia.[medlink.com]
  • The pathophysiology of bruxism is unknown. The most cogent theory describes bruxism as a neuromotor dysregulation disorder. This theory proposes that bruxism occurs because of the failure to inhibit jaw motor activity during a sleep state arousal.[pocketdentistry.com]
  • DBS treatment usually targets the globus pallidus interna (GPi), which has also been the target of treatment in other hyperkinetic movement disorders such as dystonia and tics. 4,5 Although its pathophysiology is not well understood, TD may have some[healio.com]

Prevention

  • […] dose anti-psychotic medications, and some specific gastrointestinal drugs Please find comprehensive information on Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention[dovemed.com]
  • Prevention Because there is no “gold standard” treatment for TD, it is important to minimize the risk of TD by taking preventive measures and detecting incipient signs of the disorder.[mdedge.com]
  • The remaining 19 patients did not experience more than mild side effects and continued treatment with tetrabenazine after study completion. 9 Tardive dyskinesia is a difficult condition to treat; it is best, therefore, to prevent its onset by using the[mdedge.com]
  • [ edit ] Prevention of tardive dyskinesia is achieved by using the lowest effective dose of a neuroleptic for the shortest time.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Symptoms - Tardive dyskinesia Causes - Tardive dyskinesia Prevention - Tardive dyskinesia Diagnosis - Tardive dyskinesia Prognosis - Tardive dyskinesia If diagnosed early, the condition may be reversed by stopping the drug that caused the symptoms.[checkorphan.org]

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