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Oromandibular Dystonia

Focal Segmental or Multifocal Dystonia


  • In some patients the R1 component was also present on the side contralateral to the stimulus, while in normal subjects it was present only on the ipsilateral side.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present here the clinical characteristics and treatment variables of a series of patients that developed an OMD-associated eating dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case report is presented of a patient with pathologically confirmed striatonigral degeneration who experienced episodic syncope as a result of oromandibular dystonia obstructing inhalation through her mouth and nose.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A rare case of unifocal oromandibular dystonia of the temporalis muscle is presented. It was treated with surgical myotomy when initial botulinum toxin A therapy failed after 3 years of repeated injections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report on an unusual presentation of a task-specific focal oromandibular dystonia in a 47-year-old man of Turkish descent. His speech was affected exclusively while reciting Islamic prayers in Arabic language, which he otherwise did not speak.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report on an unusual presentation of a task-specific focal oromandibular dystonia in a 47-year-old man of Turkish descent. His speech was affected exclusively while reciting Islamic prayers in Arabic language, which he otherwise did not speak.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Loss of Appetite
  • The most common side effects of sertraline are sleepiness, nervousness, increased sweating somnolence, insomnia, dizziness, nausea, tremor, skin rash, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, headache, diarrhea, abnormal ejaculation, dry mouth and weight loss.[scopemed.org]
Masseter Spasm
  • She had bilateral masseter spasms and considerable difficulty in moving her jaw to the right, particularly when the upper dentures were in place.[dx.doi.org]
Numbness of the Tongue
  • A 56 year-old female patient presented at the emergency department after ten days of chemotherapy with progressive airway obstruction and complaints of numbness of the tongue. She also had difficulty swallowing and was unable to speak.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Oral Ulcers
  • The therapeutic approach adopted to reduce the severe oromandibular movements, dysphagia, and the numerous oral ulcers was selective electromyography (EMG)-guided botulinum toxin application to the inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscles and masseters[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Oromandibular Dystonia: an Update for Stomatologists. ( 28620630 ) Raoofi S....Najafi M. 2017 17 Perspectives on the Psychosocial Management of Oromandibular Dystonia. ( 28618440 ) Page A.D....Siegel L. 2017 18 Persistent oromandibular dystonia and angioedema[malacards.org]
Muscle Contracture
  • BACKGROUND: Oromandibular dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary masticatory and/or lingual muscle contracture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We have also researched movement disorders such as oromandibular dystonia, dyskinesia, and bruxism, as well as diseases caused by abnormal muscle contracture of the masticatory muscles, such as masseteric hypertrophy, hyperplasia of the coronoid process[sites.google.com]
Psychomotor Retardation
Involuntary Tongue Protrusion
  • She stopped wearing her lower dentures due to involuntary tongue protrusion and her inability to close her mouth. She used sensory tricks such as pulling her face up with a finger, which enabled her to eat, but still had difficulty in swallowing.[dx.doi.org]
Delayed Milestone
  • milestones, history of movement disorders such as cervical dystonia, essential tremor, and tics. 4 5 24-27 It is not known, however, whether these factors play an important, or any, part in the mechanism of peripherally induced OMD.[dx.doi.org]
Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • neuralgia, and delayed developmental milestones.[dx.doi.org]
  • OMD is not well characterized in the literature, neglected on cranial dystonia rating scales, and often untreated. We hypothesized location of dystonia is associated with QOL.[etd.library.emory.edu]


  • Workup Patients should be evaluated for a family history of dystonia or the presence of other dystonias.[entokey.com]
  • Routine blood tests, as well as tests for serum copper, ceruloplasmin, and acanthocytes, yielded normal results. Video-EEG monitoring did not detect abnormalities.[elsevier.es]


  • Etiology and treatment issues are discussed, emphasizing the importance of an interdisciplinary treatment approach.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Botulinum type A toxin is an effective treatment of oromandibular dystonia. It is important for clinicians to recognise the condition, as treatment is well-tolerated and can improve quality of life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In 10-15% of patients treated with capecitabine, treatment is discontinued because of serious adverse reactions, mostly within the first weeks of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two patients regained the lost weight after treatment and one was lost to follow-up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We suggest that clozapine should be considered in patients with OMD who fail to response to other treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • The prognosis is poor and the treatment is symptomatic. This paper describes a case of a 38-year-old woman referred for a locked left TMJ who was diagnosed as having an oromandibular dystonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is not intended to provide instruction and you should not rely on this information to determine diagnosis, prognosis or a course of treatment. It should not be used in place of a professional consultation with a doctor.[dystonia.org.uk]
  • Dr Salah Omer gave a lecture on Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Dr Bridget Mcdonald adressed the questions of the long term prognosis of cerebral palsy. I gave a lecture on the contribution of Botulinum toxin to Neurology over the last 25 years.[infodystonia.com]
  • Types of dystonia: The many types of dystonia are divided into separate groups because of their implications for treatment and prognosis.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Prognosis What is my prognosis? If dystonia develops in childhood, particularly if it starts in the legs, then in many (but not all) cases it will spread to other parts of the body and become generalised.[brainfoundation.org.au]


  • Clinical characteristics, etiology of brain injury, and pattern of dystonia were analyzed. Patients with clinically significant CD and OMD were treated with BTx and followed for 12 weeks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology and treatment issues are discussed, emphasizing the importance of an interdisciplinary treatment approach.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • By definition, all cases of "dystonia plus" are secondary, although the etiology (eg, neuroleptics, Wilson disease, neuroacanthocytosis, trauma) may not always be obvious.[medlink.com]
  • Differential diagnosis of oromandibular dystonia and various etiologies were investigated. Neuroimaging studies revealed a left cerebellar infarction.[academiccommons.columbia.edu]
  • Lingual protrusion dystonia: Frequency, etiology and botulinum toxin therapy. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16, 438–441.[jslhr.pubs.asha.org]


  • These results may be of value with regard to the conduct of multicenter epidemiologic and clinical studies on focal dystonias.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology, clinical features, and etiology Oromandibular dystonia affects women more frequently than men and the prevalence was estimated to be 68.9 cases per 1 million Americans (for reviews see Bhidayasiri et al. [2006]).[cambridge.org]
  • Epidemiology of focal and generalized dystonia in Rochester, Minnesota. Movement Disorders, 3, 188–194. Available from Google Scholar Plowman-Prine, E. K., Sapienza, C. M., Okun, M. S., Pollock, S. L., Jacobson, C., Wu, S. S., & Rosenbek, J.[jslhr.pubs.asha.org]
  • Epidemiology of focal and generalized dystonia in Rochester, Minnesota. Mov Disord 1988; 3: 188-194 . 14. Giron L T, Koller W, Tanner C M. Epidemiology of dystonic disorders. En: Tsui J K, Calne D (eds). Hanbook of Dystonia. Nueva York.[svneurologia.org]
  • Epidemiology of dystonia in Rochester, Minnesota. Adv Neuro 1988;50:361–365. 2. Colosimo C, Suppa A, Fabbrini G, Bologna M, Berardelli A. Craniocervical dystonia: Clinical and pathophysiological features. Eur J Neurol 2010;17(Suppl 1)15–21. 3.[tremorjournal.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The effect of cholinergic agents was less than the effect of dopaminergic drugs, implying that dopamine plays a predominant role in the pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The pathophysiology of reflexes mediated by the fifth and seventh cranial nerves has been studied in 16 patients with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia compared with normal age-matched subjects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Possible roles of the cerebellum for the pathophysiology of oromandibular dystonia are discussed. Keywords: Dystonia, oromandibular dystonia, cerebrovascular disease Citation: Akin A, Yilmaz R, Selcuk F, et al.[academiccommons.columbia.edu]
  • Our patient's dystonia was in the mouth and tongue, which were anatomically in accordance with the cerebellar homonculus. 27 The cellular pathophysiology of ataxia and dystonia seems to be different.[tremorjournal.org]
  • In the last 10 years, authors have published several cases of patients with focal dystonia related to peripheral trauma and provided lists of possible pathophysiological mechanisms for this type of dystonia. 6 To the best of our knowledge, information[elsevier.es]


  • In the present case history, treatment for OMD was started as soon as the diagnosis of jaw-closing OMD was established, and dental treatment intervention for preventing its development or progression was considered at the same time.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prompt recognition and treatment may prevent further complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Therefore, to prevent these and other complications, prompt and appropriate treatment of OMD is important.[dx.doi.org]

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