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Ovarian Carcinoma

Ovarian Epithelial Cancer


Presentation

  • HGSC often presents as a very large cystic and solid tumor with frequent areas of hemorrhage and necrosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The major genetic risk factor for ovarian cancer is a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 DNA mismatch repair genes, which is present in 10% of ovarian cancer cases. Only one allele need be mutated to place a person at high risk.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • A screening test is a test that is done when no symptoms are present. Examples of screening tests are colonoscopy for colorectal cancer and the Pap test for cervical cancer. Currently, there is no screening test for ovarian cancer.[acog.org]
Asymptomatic
  • Second-line chemotherapy can be given after the cancer becomes symptomatic, because no difference in survival is seen between treating asymptomatic (elevated CA-125) and symptomatic recurrences. [ medical citation needed ] For platinum-sensitive tumors[en.wikipedia.org]
Pathologist
  • Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • If you have any of the following symptoms, especially if you have them for more than 12 days per month, contact your ob-gyn or other health care professional: Bloating or an increase in abdominal size Pelvic or abdominal pain Difficulty eating or feeling[acog.org]
  • Other common symptoms include hirsutism, abdominal pain, virilization, and an adnexal mass. [22] Children [ edit ] In adolescents or children with ovarian tumors, symptoms can include severe abdominal pain, irritation of the peritoneum, or bleeding. [[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

  • […] to determine the extent of its spread (which is a form of tumor staging ). [16] Risk scoring [ edit ] A widely recognized method of estimating the risk of malignant ovarian cancer is the risk of malignancy index (RMI), calculated based on an initial workup[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • Several new treatment algorithms are featured as well as an extensive summary of recommendations. Download the PDF from Annals of Oncology[esmo.org]
  • Fred Hutch researchers continue to refine these treatments and develop new targeted therapies and immunotherapies for the disease.[fredhutch.org]
  • A treatment plan is developed. [53] Treatment usually involves surgery and chemotherapy, and sometimes radiotherapy, regardless of the subtype of ovarian cancer. [45] [54] Surgical treatment may be sufficient for well-differentiated malignant tumors and[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Ovarian carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of lesions with specific morphology, biology, response to treatment, and behavior. The correct diagnosis is based on histopathologic examination of the specimen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Most tumors are stage I, and patients exhibit an excellent prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 88%. When extra-ovarian, the prognosis is similar to other ovarian carcinomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] genes associated with favourable prognosis.[proteinatlas.org]

Epidemiology

  • "Age at menarche and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies". International Journal of Cancer. 132 (12): 2894–2900. doi : 10.1002/ijc.27952. ISSN 0020-7136. PMC 3806278. PMID 23175139. Manson JE, Bassuk SS (2012).[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] though research is still ongoing in this area. [24] Higher caffeine intake and consumption of more than two cups of tea a day have both been associated with lower ovarian cancer risk. [21] Smoking tobacco is protective for sex cord-stromal tumors. [22] Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Colombo, on behalf of the ESMO Guidelines Committee These updated guidelines on non-epithelial ovarian cancer cover prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up for early and advanced stages and recurrences of germ cell tumours, sex cord-stromal tumours[esmo.org]
  • Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. a b c d "Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ )". NCI. December 6, 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014. a b c "Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ )". NCI. 2014-06-20.[en.wikipedia.org]

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