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Oxycodone

Dihydrohydroxycodeinone


Presentation

  • In both patients there was progressive deterioration of renal function with 1 patient requiring dialysis within 3 months of initial presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids is associated with a range of negative health consequences, including the development of dependence, emergency room presentations and overdose deaths.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient presented to us with severe headache that was nonresponsive to an NSAID and the opiate agonist tramadol.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study aimed to explore how oxycodone (an opioid) and venlafaxine (an SNRI) modulate spinal and supraspinal sensory processing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case involving a pharmacist in an impaired professionals' monitoring program in whom hair testing yielded OC on two occasions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • The deceased had pathologies consistent with severe central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression produced by high concentrations of clonazepam and oxycodone including collapsed lungs, aspirated mucus, and heart failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypoxemia
  • The analgesic effect of oxycodone hydrochloride at 0.06 mg/kg applied to painless artificial abortion surgery is not superior than that of fentanyl, but the incidence of intraoperative respiratory depression and hypoxemia is significantly lower than fentanyl[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Constipation
  • At 21 days, constipation was less than in the baseline in both groups, in the opioid-naïve group the prevalence of constipation was 3/43 (7%) in patients with oxycodone-naloxone compared to 9/44 (21%) with oxycodone (effect size 0.68; P 0.068).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of the most frequent and severe adverse events (AEs) after treatment with opioids.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Vomiting on day 1 occurred in 11%, constipation in 35% of the tapentadol patients and in 16% and 30% of the oxycodone/naloxone patients (p   0.60 and 0.33), respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Controlled-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN-CR) maintains the effect of opioid-induced analgesia through oxycodone while reducing the occurrence rate of opioid-induced constipation through naloxone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several studies have shown that an oxycodone/naloxone combination (ratio 2:1) provides analgesia and less constipation in non-cancer patients receiving relatively low doses of this formulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pelvic Pain
  • Fibroid volume as measured at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated for correlation with post-embolisation pelvic pain over a period of 24 hours.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Clonus
  • A 70-year-old woman developed severe serotonergic features, including confusion, nausea, fever, clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, shivering, and tachycardia, following the addition of oxycodone 40 mg twice daily to fluvoxamine 200 mg/day, easily fulfilling[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Electrocardiogram Change
  • Safety was evaluated by the measurement of hemodynamic changes (blood pressure, heart rate), the detection of pathologic changes in the electrocardiogram, changes of the peripheral oxygen saturation, and by the assessment of adverse effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • On discontinuation of oxycodone treatment, the seizures resolved. However, due to effective pain relief with oxycodone, the patient decided to continue treatment, and seizures recurred.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, sphincter relaxation was increased after PR naloxone/oxycodone treatment compared to macrogol (difference 17.6%; P 0.001). Resting anal pressure and anal canal distensibility did not differ between treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The OIC after treatment with OXN PR for cancer-related pain and over the long term remains unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Naltrexone pre-treatment decreased drug intake and increased food intake. Oxycodone pre-treatment decreased drug intake, but also produced extended periods with no food or drug responding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Continuous oxycodone infusion could be a reasonable treatment option in the management of dyspnea in opioid-naïve cancer patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Oxycodone overdose symptoms can be fatal, but with prompt medical care and proper recovery treatment , the prognosis is good. Sources Drug Enforcement Administration. (2014). Oxycodone . Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015).[projectknow.com]

Etiology

  • Patients with chronic pain may experience difficulty swallowing, in part due to worsening disease, comorbid conditions, iatrogenic etiology, or age.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Findings from Purdue’s Post-Marketing Epidemiology Studies of Reformulated OxyContin’s Effects (PDF) . NASCSA 2012 Conference . Scottsdale, Arizona. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2013.[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • We would like to help prevent future misunderstandings such as we experienced. To do so, we will first present the case of our patient, followed by a discussion of the actions taken.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conclusions Intravenous injection of 0.1 mg/kg of oxycodone 2 minutes prior to etomidate is more effective in preventing etomidate-induced myoclonus during general anesthesia than is 1 µg/kg of fentanyl.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] pharmaceutical opioids as a pathway to injecting drug use among young Australians and highlight the need for further research designed to identify pharmaceutical opioids users at risk of transitions to injecting and to develop interventions designed to prevent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS Oxycodone is effective for simultaneously preventing etomidate-induced myoclonus and rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements during general anesthesia induction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finding a Detox Center and Preventing Relapse NIDA currently supports three main medications for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependency and the prevention of relapse: methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone.[americanaddictioncenters.org]

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