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Ozone Poisoning

Ozone poisoning refers to the adverse effects of ozone gas, which is present at low altitudes as part of air pollution, and at high altitudes. Toxicity is usually the result of inhalation of the gas.


Presentation

The clinical manifestations of ozone poisoning are most apparent in the respiratory system, which is the main organ to be affected. Other organs and systems are also affected, such as the eyes and the central nervous system (CNS). The detrimental effects of ozone are due to ozone molecules, as well as its byproducts, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) [1] [2]. Ozone is present in varying concentrations in both indoor and outdoor air, and exposure to significant concentrations takes place in high altitude flights.

The respiratory symptoms associated with ozone toxicity include coughing, wheezing, chest pain, shortness of breath, chest discomfort and nasal mucosal and pharyngeal irritation. The severity of symptoms and the levels of ozone at which symptoms are elicited vary between individuals. Moreover, the effects of ozone are more marked during exercise. It has been suggested that adults in their second and third decades of life are more prone to the effects of ozone, as well as overweight individuals.

Ozone decreases lung function, both on acute and chronic exposure and it has been shown that repeated exposure precipitates symptoms and worsens already existing complaints. A positive correlation between higher ozone levels and respiratory-related hospital admissions and morbidity has been observed [3]. In the general population, ozone increases the extent to which airways respond to stimuli such as histamine, induces inflammation of the airways and increases the permeability of pulmonary blood vessels resulting in leakage of plasma proteins in the lungs [4]. Individuals with asthma may suffer from more frequent acute exacerbations, as well as an increase in the severity of such events [5] [6]. Furthermore, they have a lowered tolerance towards triggers that are known to cause asthmatic attacks.

Ozone may cause eye irritation and dryness, and worsen allergic conjunctivitis. Fatigue has been noted as well, along with other neurological symptoms that include headaches and decreased concentration [7].

Dry Skin
  • skin – tinnitus – cold hands and feet – tingling sensations in my legs History Can Be Revised Depending on what new information one comes across and what new experiences one has, it can shape one’s understanding of the past.[thepowerofozone.com]
Joint Stiffness
  • stiffness – overwhelming fatigue – have phases in my life full of plans and motivation followed by phases where I would fall into total procrastination and halt everything – extremely dry skin – tinnitus – cold hands and feet – tingling sensations in[thepowerofozone.com]
Compulsive Disorder
  • Disorder, constant obsessive circular thoughts – all sorts of other cognitive and emotional disturbances resulting in a very “jumpy” personality – suicidal thoughts – emotional impulsivity – depression – moodiness – not being able to understand written[thepowerofozone.com]
Depersonalization
  • I think that the joint pain, feelings of having a veil between myself and reality (derealization or depersonalization) might have been part of lyme; or maybe it was candida.[thepowerofozone.com]
Impulsivity
  • […] socially, near complete eradication of empathy – OCD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, constant obsessive circular thoughts – all sorts of other cognitive and emotional disturbances resulting in a very “jumpy” personality – suicidal thoughts – emotional impulsivity[thepowerofozone.com]
Tingling
  • […] weeks – allergies – joint stiffness – overwhelming fatigue – have phases in my life full of plans and motivation followed by phases where I would fall into total procrastination and halt everything – extremely dry skin – tinnitus – cold hands and feet – tingling[thepowerofozone.com]

Workup

A physical exam will confirm the respiratory symptoms reported. There are several modalities that can be used to observe and measure the effects of ozone on the respiratory system, these are:

  • Bronchoscopy: This shows inflamed airways [8].
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL): This is used to acquire samples of epithelial lining fluid for biochemical analysis. It reveals the presence of neutrophils as well as several inflammatory mediators, namely cytokines, leukotrienes and other eicosanoid derivatives. There is also an increase in lactose dehydrogenase, which is an indicator of cell damage. Plasma proteins may also be present.
  • Pulmonary function tests (spirometry): These show decreased lung function in several parameters, examples of these being forced expiratory volume (FEV) and forced vital capacity (FVC) [9].

Serum levels of inflammatory molecules and white blood cells may also be elevated.

Candida
  • I think that the joint pain, feelings of having a veil between myself and reality (derealization or depersonalization) might have been part of lyme; or maybe it was candida.[thepowerofozone.com]

Treatment

  • Usually 10 control (no prior treatment) animals and 10 treated animals were exposed together in a large glass chamber 12.5 in. 30 in. 16 in. to ozone generated by a water-cooled corona discharge type of ozonizer.[nature.com]
  • So I started doing what I believed had beaten lyme once before: ozone treatments. First I took out what I thought was the biggest hammer in my O3 arsenal: ozone IVs. Unexpectedly, I barely reacted to them.[thepowerofozone.com]
  • Ozone Therapy for Improved Treatment Oxygen deficit is key to the development and progression of all disease processes. Dr.[austinozone.com]
  • Here we extend UIUC's two-dimensional chemical-transport model to investigate possible effects of heterogeneous reactions of ozone on aircraft-generated carbon particles, including a treatment of soot poisoning in the model.[experts.illinois.edu]

Epidemiology

  • Ultraviolet radiation and autoimmune disease: insights from epidemiological research. Toxicology; 181-182: 71-78 (2002). Temorshuizen F, et al.[who.int]
  • The results of epidemiological studies addressing long-term effects of ozone are not entirely consistent. Several studies have used models that take into account other pollutants and their effects.[greenfacts.org]
  • American Journal of Epidemiology 142: 15-22 Meng J, Cohan DS, Bell ML (2011) A Meta-analysis of Association between Short-term Ambient Ozone Exposure and Respiratory Hospital Admissions. Epidemiology 22: S203.[insightsinchestdiseases.imedpub.com]
  • […] for epidemiologic analyses.[respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com]
  • In: Cancer epidemiology and prevention. Schottenfeld, D. & Fraumeni, J.F. eds. New York, USA, Oxford University Press, pp. 1313–1330, 1996a. Scotto, J. et al. Solar radiation. In: Cancer epidemiology and prevention.[sunsaferx.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Without proper separation of the respiratory conditions with different pathophysiology, it is unknown whether the response is solely contributed by bronchitis.[insightsinchestdiseases.imedpub.com]

Prevention

  • The presence of the lipid molecules is crucial for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as they prevent the wet surfaces of the lung from collapsing.[phys.org]
  • But this is just conjecture; these effects can be prevented.[sunsaferx.com]
  • The article related to this research was published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine and can be found here . Summary Our studies use the 911 calls to the City of Houston for health outcomes.[ensorgroup.blogs.rice.edu]

References

Article

  1. Uppu RM, Cueto R, Squadrito GL, Pryor WA. What does ozone react with at the air/lung interface? Model studies using human red blood cell membranes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;319(1):257–266.
  2. Weschler CJ. Ozone’s impact on public health: contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114(10):1489–1496.
  3. Johnston RA, Schwartzman IN, Flynt L, Shore SA. Role of interleukin-6 in murine airway responses to ozone. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288(2):L390–397.
  4. Park JW, Taube C, Swasey C, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness following exposure to ozone. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30(6):830–836.
  5. Aleman MM, Kesic MJ, Mills KH, Peden DB, Hernandez ML. The IL-1 axis is associated with airway inflammation after O3 exposure in allergic asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):1099–1101 e1092.
  6. Hernandez ML, Lay JC, Harris B, et al. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without asthma have enhanced inflammatory response to ozone. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):537–544 e531.
  7. Apte MG, Buchanan ISH, Mendell MJ. Outdoor ozone and building-related symptoms in the BASE study. Indoor Air. 2008;18(2):156–170.
  8. Shore SA, Schwartzman IN, Le Blanc B, Murthy GG, Doerschuk CM. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 contributes to ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164(4):602–607.
  9. Cho HY, Zhang LY, Kleeberger SR. Ozone-induced lung inflammation and hyperreactivity are mediated via tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280(3):L537–546.

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Last updated: 2019-06-28 12:23