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Paclitaxel


Presentation

  • We present a patient with metastatic melanoma who had a complete response to second line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present case report was to describe a novel pharmacokinetic drug–drug interaction between the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel and the antineoplastic agent paclitaxel.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The results of the present study suggested that silibinin enhanced the therapeutic potential of paclitaxel against human GC SGC‑7901 cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that the NPs presented low systemic toxicity and improved antiproliferation effect of PTX on A549 cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this brief report, we present our experience with 3-weekly paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy for patients with vulvar cancer. Two patients with locally advanced disease had an impressive response allowing standard vulvar cancer surgery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intravenous Administration
  • Preparation for Intravenous Administration TAXOL (paclitaxel) Injection must be diluted prior to infusion.[globalrph.com]
  • It is essentially insoluble in water, so for intravenous administration to cancer patients, it is dissolved in an oil base, Cremophor Solution, to form the drug Taxol .[cathlabdigest.com]
  • Injection site reactions during intravenous administration may lead to local oedema, pain, erythema, and induration. On occasion, extravasations may result in cellulitis.[medicines.org.uk]
  • Injection site reactions during intravenous administration may lead to localised oedema, pain, erythema, and induration; on occasion, extravasation can result in cellulitis.[medicines.org.uk]
Ascitic Fluid
  • Elimination from ascites fluid is also extremely slow with detectable levels still present after 18 days and an apparent disappearance half-life in ascites fluid of about 140 hours.[pdr.net]
  • Plasma paclitaxel exposure following 260- or 200-mg/m 2 dose in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, respectively, was similar to exposure observed in patients with normal hepatic function. 354 364 Conventional paclitaxel is detected in ascitic[web.archive.org]
Raynaud Phenomenon
  • ., Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, and pulmonary fibrosis), temporal association with chemotherapy administration, and the absence of detectable autoantibodies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epigastric Pain
  • On day 13 of cycle 1, the patient presented with elevated lipase and mild epigastric pain with a suspicion of acute pancreatitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Periodontitis
  • HSC-4) than human normal epithelial and mesenchymal (human gingival fibroblast, human periodontal ligament fibroblast, human pulp cell) normal cells, confirming its antitumor potential.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Alopecia
  • Slight alopecia is also common. Chemical Properties White Powder Uses glucocorticoid, antiinflammatory Uses An antineoplastic. Used in the study of structure and function of microtubles into tubulin.[chemicalbook.com]
  • Additional side effects, including fever, infection, nausea, vomiting, increase or decrease in blood pressure, diarrhea, weight loss, pain, and hair loss ( alopecia ) may occur.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Hair loss (alopecia) Paclitaxel causes hair loss. Most people will lose all their hair, including eyebrows, eyelashes and body hair. For some people, scalp cooling may be possible to try to prevent or lessen hair loss.[breastcancercare.org.uk]
  • Other Clinical Events : Alopecia was observed in almost all (87%) of the patients.[rxlist.com]
  • […] suppression (eg, neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia), inj site reactions, infections, hypotension, bradycardia, hypersensitivity reactions (if severe, do not rechallenge), peripheral neuropathy, myalgia, arthralgia, GI upset, mucositis, alopecia[empr.com]
Brittle Hair
  • Side effects Return to top Side effects from paclitaxel are common, and include: nausea and vomiting loss of appetite change in taste thinned or brittle hair pain in the joints of the arms or legs lasting 2-3 days changes in the color of the nails tingling[web.archive.org]
  • Side effects [ edit ] Common side effects include nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, change in taste, thinned or brittle hair, pain in the joints of the arms or legs lasting two to three days, changes in the color of the nails, and tingling in the[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Taxol's castor-oil carrier was suspected as the culprit behind much of the misery, which included nausea, vomiting, joint pain, appetite loss, brittle hair and tingling sensations in hands and feet.[web.archive.org]
Arthralgia
  • Arthralgia/Myalgia : There was no consistent relationship between dose or schedule of TAXOL and the frequency or severity of arthralgia/myalgia. Sixty percent of all patients treated experienced arthralgia/myalgia; 8% experienced severe symptoms.[rxlist.com]
  • Arthralgia or myalgia were seen in 60 % of the patients and were severe in 13 % of the patients.[medicines.org.uk]
  • Arthralgia or myalgia affected 60% of patients and was severe in 13% of patients.[medicines.org.uk]
  • Arthralgia/Myalgia There was no consistent relationship between dose or schedule of Paclitaxel and the frequency or severity of arthralgia/myalgia. Sixty percent of all patients treated experienced arthralgia/myalgia; 8% experienced severe symptoms.[drugs.com]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • PURPOSE: This case-control study was designed to assess the efficacy of cryotherapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in women with breast cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Segal said having discovered the mechanism that causes peripheral neuropathy in patients treated with taxane chemotherapy might be valuable in other ways.[ascopost.com]
  • PURPOSE: Approximately 25% of breast cancer patients experience treatment delays or discontinuation due to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN). Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers of PN.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The frequency and grade of peripheral neuropathy were similar in all arms.[jco.ascopubs.org]
  • Objective chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) events at a cumulative dose of 960 mg/m 2 .[academic.oup.com]
Neglect
  • […] quote from a company report saying "It was not until 1971 that ... testing ... enabled the isolation of paclitaxel, initially described as 'compound 17". [63] This quote is, strictly speaking, accurate: the objection seems to be that this misleadingly neglects[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

Bilateral Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • Imaging revealed diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Other causes of respiratory failure were excluded with laboratory work-up, imaging, biopsy studies and results of antibiotic treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Polyps
  • We have previously documented a series of lung cancer patients who developed pre-malignant colonic polyps and/or colon cancer either during or weeks following chemotherapy with paclitaxel, suggesting a potential role of this agent in their pathogenesis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Treatment was well tolerated with no significant toxicity or need for dose reduction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He refused treatment continuation because of various severe toxicities in the first treatment cycle; he was therefore followed-up without any further treatments. Despite this, no disease progression was observed over 9 months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When a locoregional recurrence was observed as a result of a brief treatment interruption or a treatment delay, a new complete remission was rapidly achieved with the resumption of the drug, without evidence of any significant adverse effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the p3D model, a lower sensitivity of tumor cells to treatments was observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: Whole blood samples were collected pre-treatment (BL), just before the end of the first paclitaxel infusion (EOI), and 24 h after the first infusion (24H) from sixty patients with breast cancer receiving (80 mg/m 2 ) weekly treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis and 10 year survival less than 10%. We present a patient with metastatic melanoma who had a complete response to second line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is considered a major cause of post-treatment recurrence that negatively impacts the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Cervical cancer recurs in 30% of cases, for which a favorable prognosis is often unattainable. We describe a cervical cancer patient who developed metastatic disease 5 years after her initial diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Survivin expression has been shown to be associated with cancer progression, poor prognosis, and drug resistance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Toxicity, efficacy of NAC, surgery outcome, and prognosis were assessed by comparing the two groups. RESULTS: Twenty patients treated with W-TC and 18 patients treated with TW-TC were analyzed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Although our patient's history was significant for previous radiation therapy, the lack of accompanying funduscopic findings and absence of leakage at angiography makes radiation therapy an unlikely etiologic factor.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Using the CEC narratives and the etiology of deaths provided, the causes of death were categorized by organ system classification. Statistical analyses All descriptive summaries were based on nonmissing assessments.[onlinejacc.org]

Epidemiology

  • Electronic address: kirubakaran.palani@uochb.cas.cz. 6 Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Ruská 87, 110 00 Prague, Czech Republic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Meta‐Regression Analysis In line with Bradford Hill's criteria 61 for establishing epidemiological evidence for causation, we explored presence of a biological gradient, that is, whether greater exposure leads to greater incidence of the effect.[ahajournals.org]
  • Mortality rates across the individual trials of DCBs are well within the ranges reported in other adjudicated nondrug vascular device trials and also reported in epidemiological studies of patients with PAD.[onlinejacc.org]
  • Harnett & Anna de Fazio Chris O’Brien Lifehouse, Sydney, Australia Philip Beale & Michelle Harrison Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK Craig Luccarini & Don Conroy Sydney West Translational[nature.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we report on a 69-year-old woman who developed cystoid macular edema associated with the albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel after several months of therapy for breast cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiology remains unclear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the pathophysiology was unknown. A 60-year-old female presented with bilateral blurred vision due to cystoid macular edema after taking 12-course paclitaxel for her breast cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There has been 1 reported case of CME without leakage on fluorescein angiograms associated with docetaxel therapy. 3 The pathophysiology of angiographically negative CME is unclear.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Toxicity to Müller cells is the theory for the pathophysiological mechanism, with subsequent accumulation of intracellular fluid and subclinical extracellular extravasation ( 3 , 5 , 6 ) .[scielo.br]

Prevention

  • It is currently unclear whether protein kinase C inhibition can prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] cause G2/M cycle arrest in the PTX-resistant A2780AD ovarian cancer cell line; (ii) GA exerted a pro-oxidant action by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and co-treatment with the antioxidant agent N‑acetyl-L‑cysteine (NAC) prevented[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Much more research is needed to discover safe and effective preventive strategies that can be easily implemented within busy infusion centers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We tested whether paclitaxel-coated coronary stents are effective at preventing neointimal proliferation in a porcine model of restenosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Adding the Bclw protein to the nerve axons before exposing them to paclitaxel prevented the nerves from dying off.[ascopost.com]

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