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Panic Attacks


Presentation

  • Subsequently, nine suitable panic and neutral word pairs were presented in block to the participants. Anxiety levels were assessed before and after the presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that SAD-related situational PAs are associated with more severe and complex presentations of SAD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While temporal lobe epilepsy is often considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with anxiety or panic disorders, other types of epilepsy can confound the presentation or treatment of adults with panic disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this paper, we present a patient who had no prior psychiatric history and developed panic attacks just prior to diagnosis of her cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study suggests that populations with isolated or limited symptom should be carefully attended to in clinical practice, especially if agoraphobia is present. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chills
  • Affirmations (16:13) After 2-3 weeks, most people experience a substantial reduction or even elimination of panic's classic symptoms of rapid breathing, racing heart, chills, sweats, numbness, shaking, chest pain, terror and the signature, irrational[healthjourneys.com]
  • Most people with panic attacks experience several of the following symptoms : "Racing" heart Feeling weak, faint, or dizzy Tingling or numbness in the hands and fingers Sense of terror, or impending doom or death Feeling sweaty or having chills Chest[webmd.com]
  • […] definite diagnosis, some common ones include: Irregular heartbeat Dizziness and lightheadedness Shortness of breath Choking sensations and nausea Shaking and sweating Fatigue and weakness Chest pain and heartburn Muscle spasms Hot flashes or sudden chills[psychcentral.com]
  • […] abdominal distress feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint feelings of unreality (derealization) or being detached from oneself (depersonalization) fear of losing control or going crazy fear of dying numbness or tingling sensations (paresthesias) chills[panicdisorder.about.com]
  • Within the app are both a scientific-looking clinical mode that lays out the data in graph form and, for us ordinary folk, the most chilled out take on Flappy Bird you've ever seen.[wareable.com]
Epilepsy
  • While temporal lobe epilepsy is often considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with anxiety or panic disorders, other types of epilepsy can confound the presentation or treatment of adults with panic disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As shown by this case and one other, PET and MRI imaging of patients with panic disorder who are thought to have epilepsy may be helpful in leading to definitive electrographic studies that confirm temporal lobe epilepsy as the primary diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The authors present the cases of three patients in whom panic attacks and epilepsy appeared together. These cases illustrate various possible relationships between panic attacks and epilepsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Panic attacks, a frequent type of pseudoepileptic seizures, occur more frequently in epilepsy patients than in the general population and are often misdiagnosed, leading to pseudosevere epilepsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although similar, ictal panic from epilepsy and classic panic attacks are clinically distinguishable entities with different modalities of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • ., dizziness caused by standing up from a sitting or a lying position, forms a key aspect of many syndromes: irritable heart (American Civil War), effort syndrome (World War I and World War II), chronic fatigue syndrome (contemporary USA), Gulf War syndrome[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspnea
  • According to our observations, some migraine subjects develop panic attacks with the typical symptoms (palpitation, dyspnea, anxiety/fear, shiver, sweating, polyuria) on the "peak" of their attacks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As the major symptom of a terminal illness that threatens our most basic physical requirement, dyspnea in COPD is open to catastrophic misinterpretation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, patients with PD/PA reported more panic (F(1, 22) 18.10, p .001), anxiety (F(1, 22) 21.93, p .001), worry (F(1, 22) 26.31, p .001), and dyspnea (F(1,22) 4.68, p .042) and exhibited higher levels of CO2 production (F(1, 2843) 5.89, p .015), minute[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These attacks may last from several minutes to hours, and may vary in intensity and specific symptoms of panic over the duration (i.e. rapid heartbeat, perspiration, dizziness, dyspnea,trembling, psychological experience of uncontrollable fear, etc.).[crystalinks.com]
  • An episode of intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as heart palpitations, sweating and chills or hot flushes , a sensation of dyspnea, chest pain, abdominal distress, depersonalization, fear of going crazy, and fear of dying.[icd10data.com]
Nausea
  • In 5 of the patients, other symptoms associated with the ictal panic, including unusual sounds, nausea, automatism, uprising gastric sensation, and déjà vu were identified.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A panic attack is a sudden rush of physical symptoms — like shortness of breath, muscle spasms, and nausea — coupled with uncontrollable anxiety and sometimes a sense of impending doom.[psychcentral.com]
  • Symptoms may include trembling, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain (or chest tightness), sweating, nausea, dizziness (or slight vertigo), hyperventilation, paresthesias (tingling sensations), vomiting, and sensations of choking or smothering[sciencedaily.com]
  • Physical symptoms may include chest pain, dizziness, nausea, sweating, tingling or numbness, and a racing heartbeat.[uhs.umich.edu]
Choking
  • Symptoms may include trembling, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain (or chest tightness), sweating, nausea, dizziness (or slight vertigo), hyperventilation, paresthesias (tingling sensations), vomiting, and sensations of choking or smothering[sciencedaily.com]
  • Symptoms may include: racing heart sweating shortness of breath or feelings of choking dizziness feeling numb or tingling sensations fear of going crazy fear of dying queasy stomach feeling detached from oneself.[au.reachout.com]
  • Signs of a panic attack You may experience: what feels like an irregular or racing heartbeat (palpitations) sweating trembling shortness of breath (hyperventilation) a choking sensation nausea dizziness tingling fingers ringing in your ears Some people[nhs.uk]
Vomiting
  • Symptoms may include trembling, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain (or chest tightness), sweating, nausea, dizziness (or slight vertigo), hyperventilation, paresthesias (tingling sensations), vomiting, and sensations of choking or smothering[sciencedaily.com]
  • Feeling the need to vomit or defecate (sorry to bring that up : ) ): Both, if you were covered in them (YUCK!), would help put off a potential predator from eating you! So these are all, in very extreme circumstances, useful reactions.[uncommonhelp.me]
  • […] lightheadedness, unsteadiness Emotional distress Emotional upset Inability to calm yourself down Knot in the stomach, tight stomach Nausea Panicky feeling Pounding, racing heart Butterflies in the stomach Sudden urge to go to the bathroom (urinate, defecate) Vomiting[anxietycentre.com]
Diarrhea
  • If I’m unlucky, the belly breathing doesn’t work and I get hit with the following symptoms all at once and with startling intensity: dry heaves, diarrhea, crying so hard I give myself a headache, being so on edge that all of my muscles are clenched.[greatist.com]
  • Physical Symptoms: People with panic disorder may also have irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by intermittent bouts of gastrointestinal cramps and diarrhea or constipation, or a relatively minor heart problem called mitral valve prolapse, which[mentalhealthamerica.net]
  • 4 of the following symptoms: chest pain or discomfort choking dizziness, or feeling faint or unsteady fear of dying fear of losing control feelings of choking feelings of not being part of your environment flushing or chills nausea, stomach ache, or diarrhea[medbroadcast.com]
Chest Pain
  • METHOD: This cross-sectional sample included 339 patients with noncardiac chest pain and panic attacks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms may include trembling, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain (or chest tightness), sweating, nausea, dizziness (or slight vertigo), hyperventilation, paresthesias (tingling sensations), vomiting, and sensations of choking or smothering[sciencedaily.com]
  • Affirmations (16:13) After 2-3 weeks, most people experience a substantial reduction or even elimination of panic's classic symptoms of rapid breathing, racing heart, chills, sweats, numbness, shaking, chest pain, terror and the signature, irrational[healthjourneys.com]
  • You still have a rapid or irregular heartbeat or chest pains after your panic attack. You regularly have panic attacks, as this could be a sign that you have panic disorder . See what you can do to avoid future panic attacks .[nhs.uk]
Palpitations
  • The White group had significantly higher rates of panic disorder, and of many panic symptoms, including palpitations, as compared to the African American, Asian and Latino groups. Several expected race-ethnic differences were not found.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • According to our observations, some migraine subjects develop panic attacks with the typical symptoms (palpitation, dyspnea, anxiety/fear, shiver, sweating, polyuria) on the "peak" of their attacks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of associated word pairs referring to catastrophic thinking (e.g. palpitations-heart attack) in producing panic attacks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common panic attack symptoms were palpitations (86.4%), sweating (66.7%), shortness of breath (63.6%), trembling or shaking (63.6%), and fear of losing control or going crazy (63.6%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Panic typically involves an abrupt feeling of catastrophic fear or distress accompanied by physiological symptoms such as palpitations, racing heart, thermal sensations, and sweating.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mitral Valve Prolapse
  • Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) refers to a problem occurring when the mitral valve of the heart doesn't close properly. It's a minor cardiac problem, but needs monitoring by a physician.[healthyplace.com]
  • They can also be caused by medical conditions such as mitral valve prolapse, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, or medication withdrawal.[goodtherapy.org]
  • Physical Symptoms: People with panic disorder may also have irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by intermittent bouts of gastrointestinal cramps and diarrhea or constipation, or a relatively minor heart problem called mitral valve prolapse, which[mentalhealthamerica.net]
  • If you’re suffering from symptoms of panic, it’s important to see a doctor to rule out the following possibilities: Mitral valve prolapse, a minor cardiac problem that occurs when one of the heart’s valves doesn’t close correctly Hyperthyroidism (overactive[helpguide.org]
Tachycardia
  • This leads to an increased heart rate ( tachycardia ), rapid breathing ( hyperventilation ) which may be perceived as shortness of breath ( dyspnea ), and sweating.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • This leads to an increased heart rate (tachycardia), rapid breathing (hyperventilation), and sweating (which increases grip and aids heat loss).[crystalinks.com]
  • Specific psychological phenomenon characterized by sudden onset of anxiety (often unrelated to objective events), accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, paresthesia, flushing, and sweating.[icd10data.com]
  • […] psychogenic complex affecting 1.5% of US, characterized by recurrent and unpredictable episodes–panic attacks of sudden, extreme apprehension, fear, autonomic nervous system hyperactivity Clinical Dyspnea, palpitations, chest pain, choking sensation, tachycardia[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Panic Attacks
  • However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ., 1994), from which we analyzed interviewer ratings of panic attacks and panic attack symptoms, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical observations suggest that panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms may be common. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined such panic attacks in BDD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additionally, smoking and alcohol abuse were significant predictors of panic attacks. Those who abused alcohol have over 2 times the odds of having panic attacks. Similarly, smokers had 52% higher odds of panic attacks than non-smokers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although the impact was smaller than for panic disorder, the associations identified for panic attacks were consistent and significant and were, to a lesser extent, also found for a history of panic attacks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Depersonalization
  • Although these non-fearful panic attacks do not differ from their fearful counterparts in terms of age, age of onset or frequency of attacks, they are less often associated with some symptoms including shortness of breath, trembling, smothering and depersonalization[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] or shaking sensations of shortness of breath or smothering feeling of choking chest pain or discomfort nausea or abdominal distress feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint feelings of unreality (derealization) or being detached from oneself (depersonalization[panicdisorder.about.com]
  • […] abruptly during a panic attack: Palpitations Sweating Trembling or shaking Sensations of shortness of breath Feeling of choking Chest pain Nausea or abdominal distress Feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed or faint Derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization[warwick.ac.uk]
  • […] accelerated heart rate Sweating Trembling or shaking Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering Feeling of choking Chest pain or discomfort Abdominal distress Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint Derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization[psychcentral.com]
  • Symptoms of a Panic Attack Cognitive Fear of dying Fear of going crazy or of losing control Feelings of unreality, strangeness (derealization), or detachment from the self (depersonalization) Somatic Chest pain or discomfort Dizziness, unsteady feelings[merckmanuals.com]
Social Isolation
  • It can cause: Low self-esteem Poor school performance Problems with peer and family relationships Social isolation Sleep problems Depression Drug or alcohol use Agoraphobia (fear of visiting crowded places) What causes panic attacks and panic disorder[youngmenshealthsite.org]
  • The outward symptoms of a panic attack frequently result in social difficulties, such as embarrassment, stigma, or social isolation.[med.upenn.edu]
  • If someone in your family has panic attacks, you may feel frustrated, overworked (because you have to take over his or her responsibilities), or socially isolated because the person restricts family activities. These feelings are common.[northshore.org]
Hot Flushes
  • flushes The presence of fewer than four of the above symptoms may be considered a limited-symptom panic attack.[panicdisorder.about.com]
  • […] abdominal distress Feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed or faint Derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself) Fear of losing control or 'going crazy' Numbness or tingling sensations (parenthesis) Chills or hot[warwick.ac.uk]
  • flushes Accelerated heart rate A feeling of constriction in the chest Breathing difficulties, including shortness of breath Nausea or abdominal distress Tense muscles Dry mouth Feelings of unreality and detachment from the environment.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Hot flushes or chills. Feeling short of breath, sometimes with choking sensations. Chest pains. Feeling sick (nauseated), dizzy, or faint. Fear of dying or going crazy. Numbness or pins and needles.[patient.info]
Bladder Pain
  • Women with a probable diagnosis of depression or current panic attacks reported worse functioning and increased pain and were less likely to work because of bladder pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Paresthesia
  • Atypical panic attacks include features such as focal paresthesias or sensory distortions, but attempts to demonstrate a relationship to partial seizures have been unsuccessful.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms may include trembling, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, chest pain (or chest tightness), sweating, nausea, dizziness (or slight vertigo), hyperventilation, paresthesias (tingling sensations), vomiting, and sensations of choking or smothering[sciencedaily.com]
  • […] nausea or abdominal distress feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint feelings of unreality (derealization) or being detached from oneself (depersonalization) fear of losing control or going crazy fear of dying numbness or tingling sensations (paresthesias[panicdisorder.about.com]
  • […] heartbeat, trembling or shaking, an uncomfortable feeling or ache in the chest area stomach issues or nausea dizziness, a feeling of light-headedness or fainting fear of losing control or going mad fear of dying numb tingling sensations, also called paresthesia[15minutes4me.com]
Agitation
  • […] parenthesis) Chills or hot flushes Panic is often associated with other types of psychological difficulty: low mood, sleep disturbance, loss of sexual interest, feelings of hopelessness, health anxiety, worthlessness, a loss of pleasure in activities, agitation[warwick.ac.uk]
Tremor
  • However, this may be attributed to dopamine’s tendency to increase feelings of self-efficacy and confidence, which reduce anxiety in an indirect way. [24] Many physical symptoms of anxiety, such as rapid heart rate and hand tremors, are regulated by norepinephrine[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

  • Since the symptoms so closely mimic those of a heart attack, you’ll want a workup to rule out ticker trouble, Allen says. Next, your doctor will review your drugs, prescription or over-the-counter.[menshealth.com]
  • They may start to worry that they have a serious medical condition that hasn’t yet been diagnosed – despite a thorough medical workup and reassurance from their doctor.[psyweb.com]
  • Individuals who experience panic attacks should have a full physical workup in order to rule out purely physiological causes of these experiences with intense anxiety.[americanaddictioncenters.org]
  • Patients with cardiac symptoms need a cardiac workup and should see their primary medical doctor. Patients who have complaints of dizziness should receive a thorough neurological evaluation.[minddisorders.com]
Hypocapnia
  • Hyperventilation syndrome can cause respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia. This syndrome often involves prominent mouth breathing as well.[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • […] to the treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHOD: The relationship of panic attacks to 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at mid-treatment, end of treatment, and 6-month post-end of treatment were examined among cancer patients (N 2255 patients; 50.1% female; Mage 54.9, SD 11.0) who received counseling[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients' trust in both the treatment and the treating physician.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The stressor (splitting) variable used was Phobic Anxiety while predisposing variables included Family Health Care Utilization, Perceived Life Threat and Need For Treatment, and Treatment Experience.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although numerous studies have found sertraline to be very effective in the treatment of anxiety, there have been few case reports of panic attacks actually being induced by treatment with sertraline.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • It is expected that data derived from the community show more variation in the prognosis of panic and that subjects with less severe, 'subthreshold panic disorder' have a better prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Cancer of the pancreas is a highly malignant disease with a very poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Patients with panic disorder have a poor prognosis particularly if untreated. Patients often relapse when they attempt to discontinue treatment.[minddisorders.com]
  • ] Risk factors Smoking, psychological stress [2] Diagnostic method After other possible causes excluded [2] Differential diagnosis Hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, heart disease, lung disease, drug use [2] Treatment Counselling, medications [5] Prognosis[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Prognosis While there may be occasional periods of improvement, the episodes of panic rarely disappear on their own.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Etiology

  • We also discuss the etiological hypotheses of NPAs, focusing on the suffocation false alarm theory and conditioned fear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is unclear so far whether FS-only, PA and PD share the same etiologies and risk factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is hypothesized to share etiologic roots with panic disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Extended video electroencephalography monitoring excluded an epileptic etiology of the panic attacks. Results of cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral selective calcifications of the whole amygdaloid complex.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Yet, the etiology of psychiatric symptoms in patients with cancer of the pancreas may not be traced solely to poor prognosis, pain, or existential issues related to death and dying.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The prevalence and clinical features of panic attacks and panic disorder in American Indians were similar to epidemiologic studies with majority populations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Comorbidity; Epidemiology; Limited symptom attack; Panic attack; Panic disorder[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • LIMITATIONS: Consistent with most epidemiologic studies, the information collected relied on self-report, and not all participants were available for both waves of assessment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the relationship between PAs, panic symptoms and suicidality in individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for past-year major depressive episodes in a large epidemiological study.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: We extended previous epidemiological data to a cross-national context.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Several lines of evidence indicate that an increased neuronal excitability of the corpus amygdaloideum and hippocampus may be one pathophysiological condition of panic attacks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further research on the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the anxiety disorders and the pathophysiology of this phenomenon is required to clarify the relationship between the anxiety disorders and psychosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "International Expert Consensus Document on Takotsubo Syndrome (Part I): Clinical Characteristics, Diagnostic Criteria, and Pathophysiology". European Heart Journal. 39 (22): 2032–2046. doi : 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy076. Roth, WT (2010).[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Author information 1 Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 2 Research and Development Center, Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 3 National Cancer Center[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The study provides evidence that a brief, specifically targeted CBT intervention can treat panic attacks in COPD patients and prevent the development and worsening of panic-spectrum psychopathology and anxiety symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We suggest that a relatively quick withdrawal schedule (ten percent per day) is probably inadequate in preventing withdrawal reactions to long-acting benzodiazepines taken in high doses for an extended period of time.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Replacing processed snack foods with whole grain foods most often, according to Stevenson, can help prevent mood swings and promote relaxation.[livestrong.com]
  • Evidence is increasing that mental health professionals, in collaboration with multi-disciplinary pulmonary teams, potentially have key roles to play in preventing and treating panic attacks and panic disorder in COPD patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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