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Parainfluenza Virus


  • Furthermore, we review the current research surrounding BACM, overview the clinical presentation to healthcare professionals, and present an interesting case of a child presenting for the second time with BACM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • We report a child with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), aged 16 months. The histological findings of tonsils, spleen, and bone marrow revealed many hemophagocytic cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Periodic Breathing
  • Apnea and periodic breathing were observed in 1 patient, opsoclonus-myoclonus in another, and disease mimicking herpes encephalitis in the third. All 3 patients recovered without neurologic residua.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mild Clinical Course
  • A case of parainfluenza virus-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a Caucasian child with a mild clinical course and excellent prognosis is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 33-year-old Chilean man with fever secondary to parainfluenza 2 virus infection developed progressive cholestasis, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia and an increased ferritin level ( 2000 IU/L). A bone marrow analysis showed hemophagocytosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Calf Pain
  • Presentation is typically with acute onset calf pain and tenderness and refusal to walk or altered gait during the convalescent period of an influenza A or B infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


Viral Inclusion Body
  • Viral inclusion bodies (IBs), or replication factories, are unique structures generated by viral proteins together with some cellular proteins as a platform for efficient viral replication, but little is known about the mechanism underlying IB formation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cytoplasmic Inclusion Bodies
  • Although ATL cells were not detected in the autopsied lungs and a variety of other tissues, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which are commonly observed in RNA viral infection, were abundantly observed in the autopsied lung tissue.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Of the 7 patients with virologic and spirometric data, 5 had 1-log reduction in nasopharyngeal swab PIV viral load and 4 had improved forced expiratory volumes by the end of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment : Most infections in adults and older children are mild and recovery takes place without treatment, unless the person is very old or has an abnormal immune system.[en.vircell.com]


  • The prognosis was originally reported as grave; however, a mild form of the disease has recently been described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Akt/PKB activation in gastric carcinomas correlates with clinicopathologic variables and prognosis; Nam SY, Lee HS, Jung GA, Choi J, Cho SJ, Kim MK, Kim WH, Lee BL; APMIS. 2003 Dec;111(12):1105-13.[ncf-net.org]


  • While not all hemorrhagic pneumonias are caused by very contagious agents, the etiology must be correctly determined in order to administer appropriate patient care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Viral etiology and epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1988 ;39:632-40. [ Links ] 20. Lina B., Valette M., Foray S., et al.[scielo.br]
  • H., Parainfluenza 2 (CA) virus: Etiologic association with croup, Pediatrics 28 :614–621 (1961). PubMed Google Scholar 51a. KINGSBURY, D. W., BRATT, M. A., CHOPPIN, P. W., HANSON, R.[link.springer.com]


  • The epidemiologic relatedness of hPIV-3 strains was investigated by sequencing of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • This work demonstrates the promise of mNGS for providing rapid information for infection prevention in addition to microbial detection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention and Treatment Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent HPIV infection. However, researchers are trying to develop vaccines. Also, there is no specific antiviral treatment for HPIV illness.[cdc.gov]

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