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Parasympathomimetic Agent

Parasympathomimetics


Presentation

  • A SEMINAR ON PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC AGENTS Presented By: Ms. Kirti Vadi 17MPHCT002 M.Pharm (pharmacolgy) Rpcp,changa Guided By: Dr. Jalpa Suthar Assistant Professor Dept. Of Pharmacology & Toxicology Rpcp,changa 2.[slideshare.net]
  • […] prostate gland of the dog is relatively more sensitive to direct-acting agents such as acetyicholine, methacholine and oxotremorine than to indirect-acting substances like physostigmine and neostigmine, and this conclusion is discussed in relation to present[jpet.aspetjournals.org]
  • Revised throughout, this new edition presents the latest guidance in clinical examination, randomized trials, medical treatment, laser therapy, and surgical procedures.[books.google.de]
  • -they have muscarinic and nicotinic effects via excess Ach -cholinesterase breaks down Ach; when it is inhibited, there is more Ach present; acts as a cholinergic agonist -may have direct nicotinic effect on neuromuscular junction (secondary effect) What[quizlet.com]
  • . — Eptifibatide and its salts — a reversible antagonist of fibrinogen binding to GP IIb/IIIa receptor, the major platelet receptor involved in platelet aggregation, indicated for the treatment of patients presenting with symptoms of unstable angina/non-Q-wave[glosbe.com]
Ptosis
  • Symptoms, which vary in type and severity, may include asymmetrical ptosis (a drooping of one or both eyelids), diplopia (double vision) due to weakness of the muscles that control eye movements, an unstable or waddling gait, weakness in arms, hands,[authorstream.com]
Increased Sweating
  • sweating, salivation, and gastric secretion Nausea Ocular symptoms: miosis, lacrimation CNS -related symptoms: restlessness, anxiety, ataxia, tremor possibly culminating in coma Musculoskeletal symptoms: fasciculations, weakness ;, spasms, paralysis[amboss.com]
  • sweating and salivation S timulation followed by depression in CNS ADR: Delirium Classification: 1.[medchrome.com]
  • Systemic side-effects noted are: bradycardia, increased sweating, diarrhoea, excessive salivation and anxiety.[ikeyes.blogspot.com]
Slurred Speech
  • speech, diplopia, difficulty in swallowing Treatment:  Neostigmine – 15 to 30 mg, orally, every 6 hrly  Dose requirement may fluctuate time to time – adjustment required according to the response  Pyridostigmine – 60-120mg, 4-6hrly, orally 21.[slideshare.net]
  • In others, difficulty in swallowing and slurred speech may be the first signs.[authorstream.com]
Waddling Gait
  • Symptoms, which vary in type and severity, may include asymmetrical ptosis (a drooping of one or both eyelids), diplopia (double vision) due to weakness of the muscles that control eye movements, an unstable or waddling gait, weakness in arms, hands,[authorstream.com]
Dysautonomia
  • Acquired postganglionic cholinergic dysautonomia. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatrics 1982; 70 : 976–978. PubMed Google Scholar 44. Loiudice TA, Buhac I. Diabetic visceral neuropathy: treatment with bethanechol chloride.[link.springer.com]
Stroke
  • Stroke 1973; 4 : 12–19. PubMed Google Scholar 6. Khurana RK, Nelson E, Azzarelli B, Garcia JH. Shy-Drager syndrome: diagnosis and treatment of cholinergic dysfunction. Neurology 1980; 30 : 805–809. PubMed Google Scholar 7.[link.springer.com]

Workup

Fusarium
  • Seite 478 - Antibiotic obtained from cultures of a fusarium belonging to Lateritium Wr. section, or the same substance produced by any other means... ‎[books.google.de]

Treatment

  • These studies have used placebo [ 9, 11 - 15, 17 ], no treatment [ 8, 10 ] or other active treatments [ 16 ] as control, and involved 19–1796 patients. There was considerable heterogeneity in treatment methods ( Table 1 ).[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Treatments with some immunosuppressives take weeks to months before effects are noticed.[authorstream.com]
  • The use of an anxiolytic agent was not effective in the treatment of postoperative urinary retention. Bladder distention may increase the incidence of urinary retention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Authored by three prominent specialists in the field, this text provides comprehensive coverage of diagnostic and treatment modalities for optimal glaucoma management.[books.google.de]

Prognosis

  • PMID: 7914443 Prognosis Schmetterer L, Strenn K, Findl O, Breiteneder H, Graselli U, Agneter E, Eichler HG, Wolzt M Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997 May;61(5):583-95. doi: 10.1016/S0009-9236(97)90138-7.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Most patients with glaucoma retain useful vision for most of their lives if caught early and treatment is initiated. Incidence of unilateral blindness has been reported to be 27% and bilateral blindness 9% at 20 years following diagnosis.[eyewiki.aao.org]

Etiology

  • [from MeSH ] Etiology Clin Auton Res 1994 Apr;4(1-2):5-13. PMID: 7914443 Gottesman L, Milsom JW, Mazier WP Dis Colon Rectum 1989 Oct;32(10):867-70.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. In some individuals with complete heart block, the idioventricular rate may be accelerated by atropine; in others, the rate is stabilized.[rxlist.com]

Epidemiology

  • Synthesizes a classical approach to the glaucomas-based on seven earlier editions spanning over 40 years-with the most up-to-date evidence-based and epidemiologically-derived classifications and outcomes.Coherently correlates with authoritative consensus[books.google.de]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Multiple system atrophy: clinical aspects, pathophysiology, and treatment. Neurol Clin 1984; 2 : 487–498. PubMed Google Scholar 10. Cohen J, Low P, Feaket R, Sheps J, Jiang N-S.[link.springer.com]
  • Pathophysiologic changes in the optic nerves of eyes with primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov. 46(11):4170-81. [Medline]. Kanthan GL, Mitchell P, Burlutsky G, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Other possible risk factors include: perfusion pressure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, myopia Pathophysiology Not entirely understood.[eyewiki.aao.org]

Prevention

  • DISCUSSION Taken together the currently available data show little if any beneficial effect of parasympathomimetic agents in preventing or treating UUB.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • Drug Names bethanechol, edrophonium, Prostigmin / neostigmine, Eserine / physostigmine, Mestinon / pyridostigmine Common uses myasthenia gravis, nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade, postoperative bladder distention, postoperative ileus Pharmacology prevent[everything2.com]
  • Decontamination to prevent further absorption 2. Start oxygen after clearing the airway 3. Open IV line and start infusion to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance as well as emergency IV administration. Specific treatment— 1.[cology4u.blogspot.com]
  • Abnormally raised intraocular pressure (associated with glaucoma) damages the eye and is one of the commonest preventable causes of blindness.[authorstream.com]

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