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Parkinson-Dementia Syndrome


  • The pathology resembled that of progressive supranuclear palsy or the Parkinson-dementia complex of Guam, but these were excluded by the clinical presentation. This syndrome appears to be a new entity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Initial presentation includes loss of smell, irritability, depression, personality changes, and apathy. Withdrawal is a common presenting characteristics along with fender benders – these patients ARE NOT hallucinating when they first present.[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • Acronym PARDE Synonyms Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome atypical Supranuclear palsy progressive 1 atypical Keywords Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only.[uniprot.org]
  • The pathology resembled that of progressive supranuclear palsy or the Parkinson-dementia complex of Guam, but these were excluded by the clinical presentation.[neurology.org]
  • The demented Parkinsonian patients then present with improvement in cognitive function while motor skills do not deteriorate.[link.springer.com]
  • […] has recently been published that seeks to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of cholinesterase inhibitors in three different conditions: Dementia with Lewy bodies Parkinson’s disease with dementia Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease falling[nationalelfservice.net]
  • These complications include infections, pneumonia, falls, and choking. With proper treatment, however, patients with Parkinson’s can live as long as those without the disease.[healthline.com]
  • It has been suggested that the difference in the disease progression between LBD and Alzheimer’s can partially be explained by the increase in falls, and therefore injuries and hospitalizations, in those with LBD.[verywell.com]
  • Repeated falls are common. Fluctuating cognitive function is a relatively specific feature of Lewy body dementia.[merckmanuals.com]
  • […] lunging forward when mobilizing. the other common early signs include general slowing of movement, change in personality and visual symptoms due to restricted eye movements especially in the vertical plane -because they can look down very well people fall[defeatparkinsons.com]
Progressive Dementia
  • A person with Parkinson's disease is at high risk of going on to develop dementia (Parkinson's disease dementia) as their condition progresses.[alzheimers.org.uk]
  • Symptoms usually begin in one limb and include: Shaking (tremors) Uncontrollable limb movements (known as ‘alien limb’) Loss of feeling Muscle stiffness As corticobasal degeneration progresses, dementia symptoms may start to appear, including: Problems[ozcare.org.au]
  • Affecting more than 1.3 million Americans, Lewy body dementia (LBD) is the most misdiagnosed form of dementia and, following Alzheimer's disease, is the second most common cause of progressive dementia.[sciencedaily.com]
  • The central feature of this disease is progressive dementia shown by deficits in attention and minor dysfunctions in the early stages that can progress to severe dementia.[medicinenet.com]
  • DLB is the second most common progressive dementia, accounting for 20% of those with dementia. (Alzheimer’s disease is the most common.)[caregiver.org]
Difficulty Walking
  • .- Steele-Richardson-Olswenski syndrome- progressive supranuclear palsy-initial symptom in 2/3 of cases is loss of balance, difficulty walking -fast walking bumping into objects or people, and changes in posture- lunging forward when mobilizing. the other[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • A 47-year-old Canadian woman, who had been having difficulty walking and balancing since she was 28, was found to have a new genetic disease after 10 known conditions were ruled out, according to a paper in the journal Nature by an international team[independent.co.uk]
  • Physical Movement LBD: Often, one of the early symptoms of LBD is difficulty walking, a decrease in balance and ability to control physical movements. These symptoms are similar to Parkinson’s disease. Frequent falling is also common early in LBD.[verywell.com]
  • Symptoms of Huntington’s disease include: Growing lack of coordination Twitching and other uncontrolled movements Difficulty walking, speaking or swallowing While Huntington’s disease is commonly thought of as a motor disorder, cognitive symptoms can[ozcare.org.au]
  • Symptoms include depression, affected communication, confusion, difficulty walking, and trouble swallowing. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) represents a number of diseases, which can include "mad cow disease."[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • […] and aspiration pneumonias.[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • The cause of death was not established in every case, but most patients died of aspiration pneumonia or inanition; a few died of cancer or myocardial infarction.[jnnp.bmj.com]
  • Treatment of Parkinson hypophonia with percutaneous collagen augmentation. Laryngoscope. 1999 Aug. 109(8):1295-9. [Medline]. Kim HJ, Jeon BS, Paek SH. Effect of deep brain stimulation on pain in Parkinson disease.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Abnormal Eye Movement
  • Abstract We studied a family in which three siblings had a syndrome characterized by parkinsonism features, mental deterioration, pyramidal signs, and abnormal eye movements beginning in the third decade.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Young First published November 1, 1983, DOI: Abstract We studied a family in which three siblings had a syndrome characterized by parkinsonism features, mental deterioration, pyramidal signs, and abnormal eye movements beginning in the third decade.[neurology.org]
Auditory Hallucination
  • D. ( 1998 ) Auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 64, 533 – 535. Juncos, J. L., Roberts, V. J., Evatt, M.[apt.rcpsych.org]
  • Recurrent falls were reported in 12 cases, orthostatic hypotension in 11, visual hallucinations in 24 (accompanied also by auditory hallucinations in four cases), and systematised delusions in seven.[jnnp.bmj.com]
  • Definition A syndrome characterized by parkinsonism, tremor, rigidity, dementia, ophthalmoparesis and pyramidal signs. Neurofibrillary degeneration occurs in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei.[uniprot.org]
  • Of course by far Parkinson’s is the more common of the movement disorders second only to essential tremors.[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • There are medications, for example, that are effective at controlling dopamine levels, while others are helpful in reducing tremors and involuntary movements.[dementia.org]
  • , it’s Parkinson’s, and if dementia appears before or at the same time as the tremors, it’s DLB.[qz.com]
  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms, including resting tremor, stiffness, slowness, and walking/balance problems. The diagnosis of PD relies on the presence of slowness plus tremor and/or stiffness.[shakeitup.org.au]
  • Postural instability and bradykinesia is noted on physical exam.[medbullets.com]
  • Dementia (especially visuospatial and executive dysfunction) Extrapyramidal motor symptoms ( bradykinesia, rigor) Visual hallucinations and paranoid episodes Episodic impairment of vigilance (possibly delirium ) Frequent falls Rapid eye movement sleep[amboss.com]
  • This type of damage results in bradykinesia (abnormal slowness of physical movement), rigidity, tremor, forgetfulness, and dementia.[secure.ssa.gov]
  • Extrapyramidal symptoms (typically including rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait instability) occur (see also Overview of Movement and Cerebellar Disorders ).[merckmanuals.com]
  • Motor symptoms, such as rigidity and bradykinesia, are visible and difficult to overcome. Most people in Stage Four aren’t able to live alone. They need the assistance of a caregiver or home health aide to perform normal tasks.[healthline.com]
  • Subcortical dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by mental slowness, depression, apathy, impaired cognition and forgetfulness.[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • Generally, however, there's no good cure for apathy.[caring.com]
  • Almost all patients demonstrate changes in personality, such as retardedness, social withdrawal and apathy.[touchneurology.com]
  • People with subcortical dementia often show early symptoms of depression, clumsiness, irritability or apathy.[memorylossonline.com]
  • Still others have changes in their behavior: anxiety and depression with a loss of interest in things around them (known as apathy) and may start to experience visual hallucinations (usually small people or animals) or have false beliefs (delusions) such[people.com]
Resting Tremor
  • A triad of features classically characterizes Parkinson disease: resting tremor rigidity bradykinesia (postural instability: sometimes added as a fourth cardinal feature 3 ) Dementia can be a late feature.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Parkinsonism was defined as having at least two of four signs: resting tremor, slowed movement, rigidity, and impaired reflexes to maintain posture and balance. Of the 461 patients with synucleinopathies, 316 or 68.6 percent died during follow-up.[eurekalert.org]
  • All these patient presented with bradykinesia, rigidity, and often resting tremor, which were highly responsive to levodopa.[jnnp.bmj.com]
  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms, including resting tremor, stiffness, slowness, and walking/balance problems. The diagnosis of PD relies on the presence of slowness plus tremor and/or stiffness.[shakeitup.org.au]
  • Clinical diagnosis requires the presence of 2 of 3 cardinal signs: Resting tremor Rigidity Bradykinesia See Workup for more detail.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Shuffling Gait
  • Over time most people with LBD develop a spectrum of problems that include great variations in attention and alertness from day to day, recurrent visual hallucinations, shuffling gait, tremors, and blank expression, along with various sleep disorders[disabled-world.com]
  • Other features include fluctuating cognition, visual hallucinations, and spontaneous features of Parkinsonism such as body stiffness, tremors, shuffling gait, emotionless facial features and/or decreased coordination.[medicinenet.com]
  • Reggie went on to develop a shuffling gait, and in 2006 a neurologist diagnosed Parkinson’s. Medication helped control those symptoms but in 2009 Reggie’s behaviour changed dramatically. ‘He became terribly aggressive,’ says Margaret.[dailymail.co.uk]
  • Some people may first show the motor symptoms of parkinsonism — slowness, stiffness in the muscles, tremors, decreased dexterity, or slow, shuffling gait. Others may have visual hallucinations as the first symptom.[caregiver.org]
  • Such symptoms can be provoked by distress and embarrassment over how others may react to seeing their Parkinson's tremor or shuffling gait, and the problem can hurt their ability to perform at work or enjoy social gatherings.[caring.com]


White Matter Lesions
  • Van Zagten M, Lodder J, Kessels F (1998) Gait disorder and parkinsonian signs in patients with stroke related to small deep infarcts and white matter lesions.[link.springer.com]


  • Kogan E, Henneberg AE (2000) Parkinson-plus-dementia-syndrome—successful treatment by rivastigmine. J Neural Transm 107:I–LI Google Scholar 12.[link.springer.com]
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment option for some movement disorders and is under study for psychiatric applications. Recently, diencephalic DBS revealed selective effects on memory functions, another facet of subcortical DBS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In summary, knowing the facts will aid in early detection and treatment.[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Our staff consists of biologists and biochemists that are not trained to give medical advice .[uniprot.org]
  • Murat Emre OUP Oxford, ٠٨‏/٠١‏/٢٠١٥ - 320 من الصفحات In this edited volume, experts on the treatment of dementia associated with Parkinson's Disease (PD) describe in detail the current status of knowledge in their respective area of expertise.[books.google.com]


  • The prognosis is less favorable than in Parkinson's disease.[amboss.com]
  • The prognosis of LBD over time is fair to poor. LBD is a difficult disease for the patient and the patient's loved ones and caregivers to manage because of its unpredictable exacerbations and continual progression.[medicinenet.com]
  • One of the biggest therapeutic advantages to a better prognosis and quality of life is the institution of non-traditional modalities such as exercise and art therapy in addition to traditional treatments.[defeatparkinsons.com]
  • Parkinson's disease dementia prognosis Persons with Parkinson's disease and dementia have a poorer prognosis than persons with Parkinson's disease without dementia.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis The mainstay of treatment is medical. In patients with refractory symptoms, deep brain stimulation may be useful 15.[radiopaedia.org]


  • The ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting includes dementia in Parkinson’s disease as an example of the etiology/manifestation convention. 2 Please note that the scenarios described below depict the code results of one experienced coder[newsletters.ahima.org]
  • Etiology Although the etiology of Parkinson disease is still unclear, most cases are hypothesized to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • The importance and clinical relevance of cognitive impairment and dementia in PD is emphasized, all relevant aspects including epidemiology, full and detailed spectrum of clinical features, current knowledge on pathology, neurochemistry and genetics,[books.google.com]
  • […] in Alzheimer's disease visual hallucinations parkinsonism fluctuations in cognition Poor response to dopamine agonist therapy Lewy body eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion in neurons α-synuclein aggregation is the major component of lewy bodies Epidemiology[medbullets.com]
  • Common characteristics of Parkinson-plus syndromes Parkinson-plus syndromes have a number of features that differentiate them from Parkinson's disease (PD): References: [1] [2] Dementia with Lewy bodies Epidemiology (up to 4:1 ) Second most common form[amboss.com]
  • This article provides an update on the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of PD-D and recent treatment efforts.[touchneurology.com]
  • The study used data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a collaboration of medical facilities in Minnesota and Wisconsin involving community members who have agreed to share their medical records for research.[eurekalert.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Topics covered in this Journal include Causes and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Dementia: An Underlying Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis and Symptoms Alzheimer’s Disease Imaging Alzheimer’s Disease Pathophysiology and Disease Mechanisms Geriatrics and[scientonline.org]
  • Subcortical dementia: neuropsychology, neuropsychiatry, and pathophysiology. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 149:682-697. 39. McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, et al.[demneuropsy.com.br]
  • The pathophysiological background of LB formation is still unknown, but it might involve an abnormal processing of α synuclein, which could, in turn contribute to neuronal degeneration in the affected areas.[jnnp.bmj.com]
  • However, the presence of heterogeneous underlying pathophysiology and neuropsychological phenotype makes it difficult to define a unique model explaining the whole cognitive picture.[nature.com]
  • Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementias associated with cortical Lewy bodies: pathophysiology, clinical features, and pharmacological management. Drugs Aging. 2013;30:603–11.[alzres.biomedcentral.com]


  • Preventing or delaying dementia Recent research suggests that healthy lifestyle habits and mental stimulation may prevent dementia altogether or at least delay its onset.[helpguide.org]
  • Can Parkinson disease be prevented? Experts don't yet understand how to prevent Parkinson disease. In some instances, there seems to be a genetic predisposition to develop Parkinson disease, but this isn’t always the case.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Prevent overstimulation Keep the environment simple and quiet Ensure that background noises are kept at a minimal level (TVs, talking, dishwasher, etc.)[movementdisorders.ufhealth.org]
  • Topics covered in this Journal include Causes and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Dementia: An Underlying Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis and Symptoms Alzheimer’s Disease Imaging Alzheimer’s Disease Pathophysiology and Disease Mechanisms Geriatrics and[scientonline.org]
  • Parkinson's disease dementia prevention There is no known way of preventing dementia in Parkinson's disease.[emedicinehealth.com]

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