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Parotitis

Parotitides


Presentation

  • RESULTS: The patient sample included 50 children presenting with JRP (33 M, 17 F; age range: 2 to 16 years). Seven children presented with bilateral parotitis, the remaining 43 with unilateral parotitis. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2012.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
  • Unfortunately, she suffered multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and died. Acute suppurative parotitis requires prompt aggressive treatment that nevertheless may fail.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Poor Feeding
  • This case report describes a male neonate, 12 days of age, who presented with high grade fever, irritability, poor feeding and bilateral swelling in the parotid region. Workup showed bilateral suppurative parotitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cheilitis
  • External links [ edit ] eMedicine v t e Oral and maxillofacial pathology ( K00–K06, K11–K14, 520–525, 527–529 ) Lips Cheilitis Actinic Angular Plasma cell Cleft lip Congenital lip pit Eclabium Herpes labialis Macrocheilia Microcheilia Nasolabial cyst[en.wikipedia.org]
Microstomia
  • Sialolithiasis Sjögren's syndrome Orofacial soft tissues – Soft tissues around the mouth Actinomycosis Angioedema Basal cell carcinoma Cutaneous sinus of dental origin Cystic hygroma Gnathophyma Ludwig's angina Macrostomia Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome Microstomia[en.wikipedia.org]
Microdontia
  • Dilaceration Discoloration Ectopic enamel Enamel hypocalcification Enamel hypoplasia Turner's hypoplasia Enamel pearl Fluorosis Fusion Gemination Hyperdontia Hypodontia Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis Impaction Wisdom tooth impaction Macrodontia Meth mouth Microdontia[en.wikipedia.org]
Fracture
  • […] eruption Neonatal teeth Pulp calcification Pulp stone Pulp canal obliteration Pulp necrosis Pulp polyp Pulpitis Regional odontodysplasia Resorption Shovel-shaped incisors Supernumerary root Taurodontism Trauma Avulsion Cracked tooth syndrome Vertical root fracture[en.wikipedia.org]
Xanthoma
  • […] papillomatosis Oral melanosis Smoker's melanosis Pemphigoid Benign mucous membrane Pemphigus Plasmoacanthoma Stomatitis Aphthous Denture-related Herpetic Smokeless tobacco keratosis Submucous fibrosis Ulceration Riga–Fede disease Verruca vulgaris Verruciform xanthoma[en.wikipedia.org]
Dermatitis
  • […] around the mouth Actinomycosis Angioedema Basal cell carcinoma Cutaneous sinus of dental origin Cystic hygroma Gnathophyma Ludwig's angina Macrostomia Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome Microstomia Noma Oral Crohn's disease Orofacial granulomatosis Perioral dermatitis[en.wikipedia.org]
Keratosis
  • Spindle cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Verrucous carcinoma Oral florid papillomatosis Oral melanosis Smoker's melanosis Pemphigoid Benign mucous membrane Pemphigus Plasmoacanthoma Stomatitis Aphthous Denture-related Herpetic Smokeless tobacco keratosis[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

  • Workup showed bilateral suppurative parotitis. Abscess developed despite antibiotic therapy requiring surgical drainage before final recovery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Laboratory tests and autoimmune workup were completed in 7 patients.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Sialography was commonly used in the workup of parotid disease in the past, and this group demonstrates punctate sialectasis, which implies point like dilatations within the gland. Six-year-old girl with recurrent parotitis of childhood.[emedicine.com]
Mycobacterium Fortuitum
  • Parotitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria, a very rare disease entity, has never been reported to be caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Polyps
  • The features of these 21 cases found endoscopically were of 4 types: sialolith (n 4; 19.0%), duct polyps (n 5; 23.8%), stenosis (n 3; 14.3%), and mucus plug (n 9; 42.9%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Wisdom tooth impaction Macrodontia Meth mouth Microdontia Odontogenic tumors Keratocystic odontogenic tumour Odontoma Dens in dente Open contact Premature eruption Neonatal teeth Pulp calcification Pulp stone Pulp canal obliteration Pulp necrosis Pulp polyp[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • Although symptomatic treatment with antibiotics and analgesic, injection of intraductal medicament, aggressive treatment like duct ligation or excision of gland are some of the treatment modalities, there is no established algorithm as to which treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute parotitis in neonates This rare form of parotitis is lethal without treatment.[emedicine.com]

Prognosis

  • Advances in antimicrobial therapy have improved both outcome and prognosis. Thanks to the prompt antibiotic treatment complications are now drastically reduced. Ultrasound examination may help in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical course.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis is favorable with rare recurrence. The authors describe a case of an 8-day-old, full-term boy diagnosed with acute parotitis.[ejo.eg.net]
  • Prognosis In the long term, most cases of parotitis go away and don't return. Parotitis that is linked to another medical condition (such as HIV/AIDS or Sjögren's syndrome) may not go away completely.[colgate.com]
  • The prognosis in uncomplicated cases is very good.[amboss.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) Most salivary gland infections go away on their own or are cured with treatment. Some infections will return. Complications are not common.[mountsinai.org]

Etiology

  • Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The theories of etiology are diverse. Many authors are convinced that sialoliths or scarring of the ducts cause stasis of salivary flow and predispose the gland to infection is the etiology, but this is probably true for only a minority of cases.[emedicine.com]

Epidemiology

  • AIM: To characterize the features of juvenile parotitis in a prospective setup and epidemiology. METHODS: All children with parotitis admitted to Helsinki University Central Hospital 2005-2010 were recruited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the context of a mumps outbreak If the patient has acute parotitis and is suspected of having mumps infection because s/he is epidemiologically linked to an ongoing outbreak, testing for mumps infection is a priority as the parotitis is most likely[cdc.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Etiology and Pathophysiology Acute viral parotitis begins as a systemic infection that localizes to the parotid gland, resulting in inflammation and swelling of the gland.[unboundmedicine.com]
  • References: [3] [5] Pathophysiology Clinical features Incubation period : 16–18 days Asymptomatic course in 20% of cases Nonspecific or predominantly respiratory symptoms in 50% of cases Prodrome : Duration: 3–4 days Low-grade fever, malaise, headache[amboss.com]
  • This might suggest a pathophysiological reason as to why the presence of an APG correlates to the pathogenesis of parotitis. Abnormal morphology of the salivary duct can interfere with the flow of saliva.[journals.plos.org]
  • Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, the rationale of several surgical treatments is rather weak. Parotidectomy removes the diseased gland but begs the question of specific treatment.[emedicine.com]

Prevention

  • Once diagnosed as WG, appropriate therapy is able to prevent progression to severe clinical courses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The spectrum varies from mild and infrequent attacks to episodes so frequent that they prevent regular school attendance.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Prevention Practice good oral hygiene to prevent acute parotitis.[winchesterhospital.org]

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