Edit concept Create issue ticket

Peptostreptococcus Infection

Peptostreptococcus infection is rarely reported in general practice, but this genus of anaerobic bacteria can cause infections of virtually any tissue. Osteomyelitis, endocarditis, genitourinary and upper respiratory tract infections, as well as central nervous system infections, have all been described in the literature. This pathogen, being sensitive to aerobic conditions, is often underrecognized due to improper sampling and storage. Meticulous microbiological workup is crucial in order to identify Peptostreptococcus as the cause of infection.


Presentation

Peptostreptococcus infection is a term encompassing a wide range of infections caused by Peptostreptococci, a large group of more than a dozen bacteria [1] [2] [3]. Peptostreptococci are the main representatives of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci and most notable species are Peptostreptococcus micros and Peptostreptococcus magnus, both being a part of the normal flora of the skin, genitourinary tract, and the oral cavity [1] [3] [4]. Although these bacterial species have been confirmed as causative agents of many types of infections, Peptostreptococcus seems to be missed in many cases, presumably because of its sensitivity to oxygen and poorly handled specimens obtained for microbiological investigations [1] [3] [5] [6] [7]. Nevertheless, endocarditis (involving both native and artificial valves), infections of the oral cavity, osteomyelitis, genitourinary (such as prostatitis) and respiratory tract infections, as well as central nervous system (CNS), cutaneous, and intra-abdominal infections, have all been documented by various authors [1] [2] [4] [5] [7] [8]. Furthermore, they are among the most frequently described pathogens when it comes to polymicrobial infections, especially in the formation of abscesses [4]. The clinical presentation depends on the site. Severe localized pain is typical for joint and other soft tissue infections [1], whereas high fever and chills, either with or without heart murmurs, are seen in cases of endocarditis [6].

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Fatigue Syndrome 773 Infections in Special PatientRisk Groups 781 Postsurgical Wound Infections 783 Burn Infections 789 Infections Complicating Traumatic Injury 795 Prosthetic Device Infections 801 Infection in the Immunodeficient Patient 809 Infection[books.google.de]
Irregular Heart Rhythm
  • heart rhythm): 6 people, 85.71% Fusobacterium Infection (bacterial infection): 6 people, 85.71% Convulsion (muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body): 6 people, 85.71% Cerebral Hypoxia (not enough[ehealthme.com]
Heart Murmur
  • Severe localized pain is typical for joint and other soft tissue infections, whereas high fever and chills, either with or without heart murmurs, are seen in cases of endocarditis.[symptoma.com]
Osteoporosis
  • My mother Sipra Das is suffering from Pneumonia.and Osteoporosis. She. Is not quite well in this time. Suffering from breathing problem and fatigue. She has a high blood pressure with thyroid. And many. Problem related with this illness.[ehealthme.com]
Radiculopathy
  • Infections 649 Genital Herpes Syphilis and Genital Ulcer Disease 657 Urethritis Epidydimitis Orchitis Prostatitis 669 Vulvovaginitis Cervicitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 681 Meningitis 689 Encephalitis 703 Infections Associated with Myelopathy Radiculopathy[books.google.de]

Workup

The diagnosis of a Peptostreptococcus infection starts with a thorough clinical assessment. A detailed patient history, during which the physician must assess the presence of symptoms, their course, and progression, is highly important. The role of a proper physical examination has an equal value, particularly if endocarditis, osteomyelitis, or CNS infections are suspected. Once sufficient evidence is obtained and a presumptive diagnosis of an infection is made, microbiological testing is the cornerstone for identifying the underlying cause. Because Peptostreptococci are anaerobes, the use of swabs for obtaining a sample for evaluation can often yield a false-negative result. Aspirates, tissue specimens, or blood are much better samples for the preservation of Peptostreptococcus species during the process of microbiological identification [1] [4]. Despite the fact that Peptostreptococci are commensals of the skin and the oral cavity, their presence must not be overlooked when other sites are involved in the infectious process, particularly if a polymicrobial infection is recognized. Additional methods to confirm Peptostreptococcus are described, such as enzyme assays. The introduction of molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has greatly improved the overall rate of the diagnosis [1] [3] [4].

Treatment

  • Antimicrobial treatment of orthopedic implant-related infections with rifampin combinations. Clin Infect Dis 1992, 14, 1251–1253. PubMed Google Scholar 15. Bengtson, S., Knutson, K., Lidgren, L. Treatment of infected arthroplasty.[link.springer.com]
  • This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for an effective treatment of pyogenic brain abscess in HIV-1 patients.[mdpi.com]
  • The final sections consider common symptoms and comorbidities and summarize the latest findings in the pharmacological treatment of inflammatory rheumatic conditions. Problem-based approaches to diagnosis and management are emphasized throughout.[books.google.de]
  • A patient's recovery from anaerobic infection depends on prompt and proper treatment according to the following principles: (1) neutralizing toxins produced by anaerobes, (2) preventing local bacterial proliferation by changing the environment, and (3[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • DISCLAIMER : All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider.[ehealthme.com]

Prognosis

  • Article Sidebar Published: Mar 18, 2014 Clinical Cases Keywords Ocular infections, Severe prognosis in ocular infections, Endophthalmitis, Peptostreptococcus tetradius.[pagepressjournals.org]
  • Prognosis Complete recovery should be achieved with the appropriate surgery and antibiotic treatment. Untreated or uncontrolled infections can cause severe tissue and bone destruction, which would require plastic surgery to repair.[encyclopedia.com]
  • […] patients described in these studies were either newborns or were over 6 weeks of age and suffered from chronic debilitating disorders such as malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, or decubitus ulcers and carried a poor prognosis[ccforum.biomedcentral.com]

Etiology

  • The first years of the 21st century have witnessed many exciting discoveries in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatic disorders.[books.google.de]
  • The microbiology of pyogenic brain abscess has Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as the leading etiologic pathogens in immunocompetent individuals. Peptostreptococcus is also recognized as a common cause of brain abscess in this patient population.[mdpi.com]
  • A similar case has not been found in the review of the literature, taking into account its etiology and localization. It is discussed the importance of anerobic bacterial infections in osteoarticular pathology, and diagnostic and therapeutic means.[dialnet.unirioja.es]
  • Determine the etiology and severity of the infection. II. Assess the patient's medical history and immune system. III. Decide the place of attention. IV. Surgical treatment. V. Medical and nutritional support. VI.[repositorio.uigv.edu.pe]
  • Mediastinit efter hjärtkirurgi – mikrobiologisk etiologi och patogenes. Svenska Läkarsällskapets riksstämma 2000, p.211. Hansson C, Hoborn J, Möller A, Swanbeck G. The microbial flora in venous leg ulcers without clinical signs of infection.[referensmetodik.folkhalsomyndigheten.se]

Epidemiology

  • Tropical Countries 859 Endemic and Travelers Diarrhea in Tropical Countries 875 Eosinophilia in Travelers to Tropical Countries 881 Infections after Animal Bites and Scratches 885 EctoparasiteRelated Diseases 891 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS 903 Epidemiology[books.google.de]
  • Epidemiology: Peptostreptococcus species are commensal organisms in humans, living predominantly in the mouth, skin, gastrointestinal, vagina and urinary tracts, and compose a portion of the bacterial gut flora.[quizlet.com]
  • […] counterparts. [10] The ability of anaerobic gram-positive cocci and microaerophilic streptococci to produce capsular material is an important virulence mechanism, but other factors may also influence the interaction of these organisms in mixed infections. [11] Epidemiology[microjeganesh.blogspot.com]
  • PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar Heseltine PNR, Appleman MD, Leedom JM: Epidemiology and susceptibility of resistant Bacteroides fragilis group organisms to new β-lactam antibiotics. Rev Infect Dis 1984, 6 (suppl 1):S254-259.[ccforum.biomedcentral.com]
  • Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 65 , 232 –60.[jac.oxfordjournals.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • A new species within the genus Peptostreptococcus is Peptostreptococcus hydrogenalis; it contains the indole-positive, saccharolytic strains of the genus. [9] Pathophysiology Peptostreptococcus organisms are part of the normal florae of human mucocutaneous[microjeganesh.blogspot.com]
  • Pathophysiology and treatment. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1991.[referensmetodik.folkhalsomyndigheten.se]

Prevention

  • A patient's recovery from anaerobic infection depends on prompt and proper treatment according to the following principles: (1) neutralizing toxins produced by anaerobes, (2) preventing local bacterial proliferation by changing the environment, and (3[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Endemic and Travelers Diarrhea in Tropical Countries 875 Eosinophilia in Travelers to Tropical Countries 881 Infections after Animal Bites and Scratches 885 EctoparasiteRelated Diseases 891 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS 903 Epidemiology and Prevention[books.google.de]
  • Getting treatment for minor infections can help prevent the spread of bacteria.[healthline.com]
  • If treated before infection occurs, Peptostreptococcus is prevented. Peptostreptococcus is serious and can be life-threatening if not treated properly or quickly.[prezi.com]
  • Subscribe to the Women s Health newsletter for the latest on disease prevention. Metronidazole is used for treating trichomoniasis, What Is Metronidazole Used For. The oral form is approved to treat amebic infections in children.[zoviraxluck.weebly.com]

References

Article

  1. Riesbeck K, Sanzén L. Destructive Knee Joint Infection Caused by Peptostreptococcus micros: Importance of Early Microbiological Diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(8):2737-2739.
  2. Capunitan JA, Conte HA. Peptostreptococcus species: an unusual cause of infective endocarditis. Conn Med. 2010;74(2):93-96.
  3. Murdoch DA. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1998;11(1):81-120.
  4. Riggio MP, Lennon A. Identification of Oral Peptostreptococcus Isolates by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(9):4475-4479.
  5. Wu PH, Lin YT, Lin CY, et al. Peptostreptococcus anaerobius infective endocarditis complicated by spleen infarction. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342(2):174-176.
  6. Van der Vorm ER, Dondorp AM, van Ketel RJ, Dankert J. Apparent Culture-Negative Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Peptostreptococcus magnus. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(12):4640-4642.
  7. Brook I. Recovery of anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in 12 years at two military hospitals. J Clin Microbiol. 1988;26:1181-1188
  8. Magri V, Restelli A, Marras E, Perletti G. A severely symptomatic case of anaerobic chronic bacterial prostatitis successfully resolved with moxifloxacin therapy. Anaerobe. 2010;16(3):206-209.

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!
Last updated: 2018-06-21 20:10