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  • She completed a graduate program and 4 years after presentation was in a leadership position in education. 11 The author of this case report defined menopause-related cognitive impairment as shown in the Box.[practicalneurology.com]
  • Quality statement 1: Diagnosing perimenopause and menopause Quality statement Women over 45 years presenting with menopausal symptoms are diagnosed with perimenopause or menopause based on their symptoms alone, without confirmatory laboratory tests.[nice.org.uk]
  • Women who are using a Mirena or other progesterone only contraceptive may also present a diagnostic challenge.[menopause.org.au]
  • PM Llorca has received over the past 5 years research grants, fees for presentations at congresses or participation on scientific advisory boards from Allergan, Gedeon Richter, Gilead Sciences, Janssen, Eli Lilly and Company, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Recordati[tandfonline.com]
  • Nesse artigo também abordamos as alterações hormonais presentes durante a transição menopausal, e o seu possível papel de "gatilho" no surgimento/exacerbação de quadros depressivos.[scielo.br]
  • […] flashes who don't want or can't take a hormonal therapy may get some relief from newer antidepressants such as Effexor (venlafaxine) or certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), for example, Prozac (fluoxetine) and Paxil (paroxetine); the epilepsy[health.harvard.edu]
Increased Appetite
  • Symptoms of Major Depression Depressed, sad mood Decreased interest/pleasure in activities Significant weight loss/gain or decreased/increased appetite Insomnia or hypersomnia Psychomotor agitation or retardation Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or excessive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dry Eyes
  • Dry skin, dry eyes or dry mouth. Women who are still in the menopause transition (perimenopause) may also experience: Breast tenderness. Worsening of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Irregular periods or skipping periods.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
Sweating Problems
  • But around 20% of women experience moderate to severe symptoms, which can include: Hot flushes Night sweats Problems with falling asleep, staying asleep and sleep quality Breast tenderness Itchy/crawly/dry skin Exhaustion Trouble concentrating Irregular[jeanhailes.org.au]
  • Nervousness Panic Fatigue Sadness Irritability Relationship Problems Insomnia Feeling Overwhelmed Distress Anger Hopelessness Inertia Fearfulness Impulsivity Low Self-Esteem Loneliness Worrying Despondency Decreased Libido Self-Doubt Forgetfulness Loss[medcraveonline.com]
  • Gabapentin (Neurontin) Gabapentin is a drug that modifies impulse transmission along the course of nerves. It is used primarily in people who have seizures or chronic pain conditions.[medicinenet.com]
  • In the brain, dopamine receptors mediate affect, attention, impulse control, decision-making, motor learning, sleep, reproductive behaviors, and the regulation of food intake [ 129 ].[intechopen.com]
  • Celebrating Menopause Many women find that menopause is a time to celebrate a new phase of life rather than grieving for lost youth. After transitioning through menopause, women will not have any more periods or symptoms of PMS.[onhealth.com]
  • The degrees of distractibility and forgetfulness become intrusive and disruptive. Interest in sex decreases while there is an increased need for non-sexual contact.[medcraveonline.com]
  • […] interest/pleasure in activities Significant weight loss/gain or decreased/increased appetite Insomnia or hypersomnia Psychomotor agitation or retardation Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt Decreased ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Feeling of Worthlessness
  • Symptoms of Major Depression Depressed, sad mood Decreased interest/pleasure in activities Significant weight loss/gain or decreased/increased appetite Insomnia or hypersomnia Psychomotor agitation or retardation Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or excessive[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cramps and painful periods " Cramps " is the common name for painful periods or what doctors call dysmenorrhea. Cramps typically start just before and are most severe during the first days of menstrual flow.[cemcor.ubc.ca]
  • The prevalence of depression increased significantly in peri- and postmenopausal women compared to those who were not yet menopausal. 36 A survey of 152 women in Stockholm 37 identified higher prevalence of negative mood among women who reported dysmenorrhea[scielo.br]
Vaginal Discharge
  • . — Elizabeth Durand Streisand, Good Housekeeping, "What the Color of Your Vaginal Discharge Means, According to Gynos," 27 Nov. 2018 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word[merriam-webster.com]
  • Nocturia (feeling the need to get up in the night to urinate). Will I start menopause if I have a hysterectomy? During a hysterectomy, your uterus is removed. You won’t have a period after this procedure.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • Periods and pregnancy have their own lists of exasperating side effects: cramps, sciatica, children. The sole purpose of these earlier organic events is to prepare our bodies to propagate the species. Been there, done that. Washed a lot of T-shirts.[aarp.org]


  • It does not need treatment, but treatment can help ease symptoms. Treatment includes hormones, antidepressants, and lifestyle changes.[massgeneral.org]
  • It does not need treatment, but treatment can help lessen symptoms. Treatment includes hormones, antidepressants, and lifestyle changes.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Menopause Treatment: Natural Remedies Many women try alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Certain botanicals, or herbal supplements, are advertised to treat hot flashes and other menopause symptoms.[onhealth.com]
  • Treatments such as black cohosh and soy. To learn more, see Other Treatment. Home Treatment A healthy lifestyle may help you manage menopause symptoms.[healthy.kaiserpermanente.org]


  • […] lead patients and physicians to think another cognitive disorder is present, leading to a misdiagnosis. 11 Similarly, if symptoms of a menopause-related cognitive impairment persist past the transition or significantly interfere with function, another etiology[practicalneurology.com]
  • ., hot flashes) Clonidine and/or gabapentin References: [3] [11] [12] [13] [14] Disorders related with cessation of menstruation Premature menopause ( menopause precox ) Definition : : cessation of periods before the age of 40 Etiology Idiopathic Can[amboss.com]


  • Its multidisciplinary membership of 2,000 leaders in the field--including clinical and basic science experts from medicine, nursing, sociology, psychology, nutrition, anthropology, epidemiology, pharmacy, and education--makes NAMS uniquely qualified to[eurekalert.org]
  • Hot Flashes Hot flashes, or vasomotor symptoms, are a cardinal feature of menopause that is almost universally experienced by women. 13 Recent epidemiological evidence indicates that hot flashes are experienced by 30%–70% of premenopausal women, 24 but[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of women and depression. J Affect Disord. 2003 Mar. 74(1):5-13. [Medline]. Klaiber EL, Broverman DM, Vogel W, Kobayashi Y. Estrogen therapy for severe persistent depressions in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1979 May. 36(5):550-4.[medscape.com]
  • Repeated epidemiological studies throughout the world show that depression and anxiety prevalence rates are approximately 2:1 for women to men.[intechopen.com]
  • Epidemiology 1990;1:475-80. [ Links ] 8. Speroff L. The menopause: a signal for the future. In: Lobo RA, editor. Treatment of postmenopausal women. New York, NY: Raven Press Ltd.; 1994:1-10. [ Links ] 9. Harlow BL, Cramer DW, Annis KM.[scielo.br]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • ., DNA, psychophysiology tests, treatment studies, etc.) for the purposes of better understanding the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment response of women with depression during the perimenopause.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Postmenopause : : the time period beginning 12 months after the last menstrual period References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Pathophysiology Ovarian function estrogen and progesterone levels loss of negative feedback to the gonadotropic hormones GnRH levels[amboss.com]
  • […] cumulative prevalence of 85% for vasomotor symptoms. 26 Vasomotor symptoms cause a substantial amount of distress and reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). 27 Despite their high prevalence, surprisingly little is understood about their exact pathophysiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Preventive Services Task Force (2017). Hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA, 318(22): 2224–2233. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.18261.[healthy.kaiserpermanente.org]
  • Some studies claim they reduce hot flashes, prevent osteoporosis, treat acne, and promote cardiovascular health. Research on their ability to fight other perimenopausal symptoms, however, has been inconclusive.[flo.health]
  • Perimenopause seems to be the preventative health buzzword du jour with two guides to be released in November to help young women understand their next "life change."[independent.co.uk]
  • They act by preventing the ovary from releasing its own estrogen and progesterone. They also work to inhibit ovulation, thus preventing pregnancy.[medicinenet.com]
  • Hormonal contraceptives can also help prevent unintended pregnancies, which are still possible during perimenopause.[helloclue.com]

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