Pes planus seldom produces any signs and symptoms. In cases when it does, pain is the most common complaint. In addition, the other symptoms include the following:
- Feet begin to ache after long hours of standing or after playing sports.
- Children often complain of pain in the ankle, foot and the lower leg .
Entire Body System
- Soft Tissue Swelling
This prevents the sinus tarsi from collapsing and thus prevents the external symptom of the fallen arch from occurring. Athletic performance Acquired Flat foot deformity with clinical soft tissue swelling. [en.wikipedia.org]
This prevents the sinus tarsi from collapsing and thus prevents the external symptom of the fallen arch from occurring.  Acquired Flat foot deformity with clinical soft tissue swelling. [en.m.wikipedia.org]
A diverse range of pre-fabricated and customised FOs were utilised and effectiveness measured through a plethora of outcomes. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Lower Extremity Pain
Alteration of foot biomechanics such as with pes planus, may play a role in the development of lower extremity pain with exercise 18. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Foot Pain
The patients' foot pain levels, functional asssessment, satisfaction and quality of life were recorded. Pedobarography was used in measuring both static and dynamic plantar pressure. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Symptoms or signs of the condition include: Feet with a convex rocker-bottom shape Foot pain starting at the outside rear of the foot Pain that’s aggravated by playing sports or walking on uneven ground Rigid Flatfoot-Related Conditions Feet that are [theshoesforme.com]
Evaluation and diagnosis of common causes of foot pain in adults. . Accessed May 25, 2015. Chorley J, et al. Clinical features and management in the child or adolescent with foot pain. . Accessed May 25, 2015. Pes planus/flat foot. [mayoclinic.org]
Myerson described two subsets of patients with PTT dysfunction.  One patient group was younger and had associated enthesopathies at multiple sites, a higher incidence of HLA-B27 positivity, and a significant family history for inflammatory disease [emedicine.medscape.com]
- Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome
This can result in medial tibial stress syndrome: shin splints or tibia stress fractures. [physioworks.com.au]
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome or "Shin Splints" Due to the excessive pronation can cause the tibialis posterior or soleus muscle to apply altered stress to the inside aspect of the tibia. This can result in medial tibial stress. [boyner-clinic.com]
- Tendon Disorder
Aging changes to the supporting tendons contribute to these problems and this research represents a first step to successfully unraveling some of the complex biochemistry that regulates tendon disorders -- knowledge that could have a major impact on developing [sciencedaily.com]
Anatomy of arches of foot Definition and causations of pes planus Special discussions on more common causes: Flexible flat foot Congenital vertical talus Tarsal coalition Accessory navicular Posterior tibial tendon disorder Summary .. 3. [slideshare.net]
- Skeletal Dysplasia
Many of our pediatric orthopedic surgeons have expanded fellowship training in areas such as foot and ankle conditions, sports medicine, tumors, upper extremity surgery, limb deformity, neuromuscular diseases, skeletal dysplasia and spine problems. [seattlechildrens.org]
- Abnormal Gait
Abstract Flatfoot is a foot condition caused by the collapse of the medial arch of the foot, and it can result in problems such as severe pain, swelling, abnormal gait, and difficulty walking. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Conversely, other researchers suggest that paediatric flexible pes planus can cause pain, abnormal gait, poor balance, motor dysfunction and activity withdrawal thus justifying intervention [1, 7, 14]. [journals.plos.org]
Diagnosis of pes planus is made by a preliminary physical examination of the foot. The formation of arch upon standing on the toes will determine the type of flat foot present. For example, if an arch is formed when the individual stands on the toes then the condition is known as flexible foot. However, when no such arch in formed then the condition is referred to as rigid flat foot.
Individuals with flexible foot require no further tests or treatment. But, those diagnosed with rigid flat feet have to undergo the following diagnostic procedures:
Children and toddlers affected by pes planus do not actually require any treatment if they are not experiencing any pain or discomfort while walking and even otherwise . However, when the condition causes pain then the following methods are available:
- A foot support known as orthotic is inserted into the shoes that provides support to the feet. In certain cases, doctors also recommend special shoes with heels to be tailor made that need to be worn until the arch forms naturally.
- Certain lifestyle changes such as regular exercise to lose weight may be recommended. Affected individuals are advised to avoid standing or walking for longer durations.
- Medications may be prescribed to relieve the pain and discomfort.
- Surgical intervention is usually the last resort and is employed only when other treatment methods are not effective enough or the condition is causing great discomfort to the individual . This involves, creating an arch in the foot, fusion of the bones, and repairing the tendons.
Majority of the cases of pes planus do not need any treatment as individuals do not experience any symptoms. In conditions when they experience pain, several treatment methods are employed to relieve pain and discomfort. Some cases of flat foot may require surgical intervention to correct the problem. Individuals benefit from the method and the prognosis is usually favorable. Pes planus from tendon rupture may require prompt surgical intervention, delay in the intervention may result into a poor prognostic outcome .
Pes planus by itself can rarely cause any serious complications. However, when the condition requires surgery then post-surgical complications include the following:
- The bones that were fused do not heal
- Pain persists even after the procedure
- Foot deformity does not get corrected
- Loss of ankle movement
Pes planus results when the tendons in the foot are loose. It is a common condition for infants and toddlers as the tendons take some time to tighten and form an arch. Other causative factors that give rise to pes planus include the following:
- Illnesses or injury to the legs that damage the tendons
- Diseases such as muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy can also give rise to pes planus
- Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency 
- Obesity 
- Traumatic rupture of foot ligaments 
- Other disease conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes can cause the arch to flatten in individuals who otherwise did not have pes planus
Under normal circumstances, the tendons of the foot develop in a way to form an arch. In condition of pes planus, the tendons do not form a longitudinal arch. However, if such a condition occurs normally then it gets corrected by itself as the child grows up. The tendons tighten and gradually form an arch. In some cases, it takes several years for the arch to develop and in some the arch does not develop at all. There are basically 3 types of pes planus namely: Flexible flat foot, short Achilles tendon and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with interosseous ligament involvement .
Pes planus cannot be prevented since it is more of a heredity condition. However, the onset of secondary complications can be prevented by appropriately following the treatment recommended by a podiatrist.
Pes planus, commonly referred to as flat foot, is a condition wherein the foot does not form the normal arch in the standing position. It a common condition affecting millions of individuals across the globe. Such a kind of condition is normally identified in infants and toddlers.
Pes planus can get corrected by the time the child is 3 years old. Flat foot may be present in one or both the feet. There are no associated symptoms and pes planus can seldom lead to any serious consequences.
Pes planus also known as flat foot is a condition characterized by absence of an arch in the foot in the standing position. This condition is a normal phenomenon in infants and toddlers and usually gets corrected as the child grows. With growing age, the tendons tighten and gradually form an arch. It has been estimated that about 20 – 25% of the population fall prey to such a condition. Pes planus seldom gives rise to serious secondary conditions.
Heredity is one of the common causes of pes planus. In addition, other conditions such as diseases and injury to the feet are also known to give rise to flat foot.
In majority of the cases, flat foot has no accompanying signs or symptoms. But, certain types of pes planus such as rigid flat feet may cause pain and discomfort while walking.
Affected individuals are made to stand on their toes and the examination is carried out. If an arch is formed in this position, it implies that the individual is suffering from flexible flat foot. Such a condition does not require any further diagnosis. If no arch is formed then further tests such as CT scan, MRI and X-ray of the feet is carried out for differential diagnosis.
Individuals are given foot support to be worn inside the shoes that provide support to the foot while walking. Medications may also be prescribed if there is pain and inflammation. Surgery is employed to fuse the bones together or lengthen the tendons if they are too short to form an arch.
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