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Petroleum Distillates Poisoning

Poisoning by Fuels and Cleaners Petroleum Spirits Naphtha


Presentation

  • Arrhythmias usually occur before presentation and are unlikely to recur after presentation unless patients have excessive agitation.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Christmas Decorations: Solid wax candles are considered non-poisonous; neither coloring nor scent is present in an amount large enough to be significant. However, if large amounts are swallowed, diarrhea may develop.[illinoispoisoncenter.org]
  • Note:clinical presentation is better predictor of clinical course than the chest X-ray • other- increased transaminases 18. TREATMENT • HOME TREATMENT • TREATMENT IN HOSPITAL 19.[slideshare.net]
  • Additionally, other risk factors may be present in individual cases which may independently increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • Myopathy, with manifestations of muscle weakness and pain, hyporeflexia, tenderness and stiffness, has been the major presenting adverse effect.[rxmed.com]
Gastric Lavage
  • Gastric lavage was not harmful to the patients, but there was no conclusive evidence that it was beneficial.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Trained personnel may use gastric lavage by itself or after two doses of Ipecac syrup has failed to induce vomiting. After passing a large—caliber nasogastric tube, aspirate the stomach contents.[medical.tpub.com]
  • lavage Gastric lavage may instead increase the severity of poisoning by dissolving the substance and enhancing its absorption.[icmteaching.com]
  • Poisoning victim Prevent further absorption by administering activated charcoal, including emesis, or by administering gastric lavage and cathartics for specific treatment, contact the poison center.[slideshare.net]
  • lavage) Most symptoms are seen in people who are allergic to pyrethrins.[medlineplus.gov]
Cough
  • Symptoms and Signs After ingestion of even a very small amount of liquid hydrocarbon, patients initially cough, choke, and may vomit. Young children may have cyanosis, hold their breath, and cough persistently.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Signs and symptoms Acute exposure * If liquid is swallowed: - coughing and choking almost immediately, - vomiting, - sore throat and a burning feeling in the mouth.[helid.digicollection.org]
  • Sharper definition of, and closer adherence to, criteria for complications including a history of the presence of cough or gagging at the time of ingestion, and the routine use of serial x-ray. 3.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Respiratory symptoms -Early tachypnoea ,rales hemoptysis ,gagging choking ,transient cyanosis,pumonary edema,continued non productive cough -late pnemonia( chemical and bacterial) 13.[slideshare.net]
  • While most aliphatic hydrocarbons have little GI absorption, aspiration frequently occurs, either initially or in a semidelayed fashion as the patient coughs or vomits, thereby resulting in pulmonary effects.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sneezing
  • […] poisoning from these products include: Chest pain Coma Convulsions, tremors Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing Eye irritation if it touches the eyes Muscle weakness Nausea and vomiting Rash ( allergic reaction ) Salivating more than usual Sneezing[m.ufhealth.org]
  • […] from these products include: Chest pain Coma Convulsions Difficulty breathing Eye irritation if it touches the eyes Muscle weakness Nausea and vomiting Rash ( allergic reaction ) Salivating more than ususal Shortness of breath Skin hypersensitivity Sneezing[stlukes-stl.com]
Rales
  • Respiratory symptoms -Early tachypnoea ,rales hemoptysis ,gagging choking ,transient cyanosis,pumonary edema,continued non productive cough -late pnemonia( chemical and bacterial) 13.[slideshare.net]
Vomiting
  • Approximately 95% of patients vomit within 15 to 30 minutes of administration of a therapeutic dose and vomiting usually persists for 30 minutes to 2 hours.[rxmed.com]
  • If spontaneous vomiting occurs, administer an antiemetic.[medical.tpub.com]
  • If vomiting has not occurred within 20 minutes, the dose of Ipecac Syrup can be repeated with more fluids. Only repeat dosage once. If vomiting does not occur, call your physician or the poison control center.[ipl.org]
  • Do not make the patient vomit, because liquid might get into the lungs as the patient vomits. Do not give activated charcoal, because it does not bind petroleum distillates. For lung oedema, treat as recommended in chapter five.[helid.digicollection.org]
  • Nausea, vomiting, chest pain, dizziness, and severe depression of the central nervous system characterize the condition. Severe or fatal pneumonitis may occur if the substance is aspirated. Therefore induced emesis is contraindicated.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Nausea
  • Nausea, vomiting, chest pain, dizziness, and severe depression of the central nervous system characterize the condition. Severe or fatal pneumonitis may occur if the substance is aspirated. Therefore induced emesis is contraindicated.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Phase 1: 30 minutes - 2 hours - mild acidosis, CNS depression, corrosive effect on GI tract (nausea/vomiting). Phase 2: May see a period of apparent recovery; often not when large overdose taken.[casemed.case.edu]
  • The symptoms of an alcohol overdose may be mild, such as dizziness and nausea, or they may progress to more serious complications, such as vomiting, drowsiness, difficulty breathing, coma and death.[illinoispoisoncenter.org]
  • Atropine, barbiturates, bromide, carbon monoxide, chloral hydrate, ethanol, paraldehyde, salicylates,scopolamineConstricted pupils – Barbiturates, chloral hydrate, morphine, propoxypheneDiaphoresis – Alcohol, fluoride, insulin, physostigmineDiarrhea, nausea[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms Symptoms of poisoning from these products include: Chest pain Coma Convulsions, tremors Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing Eye irritation if it touches the eyes Muscle weakness Nausea and vomiting Rash ( allergic reaction ) Salivating[m.ufhealth.org]
Diarrhea
  • However, if large amounts are swallowed, diarrhea may develop. Liquid fuels in glass candle lamps can be very dangerous and should be kept well out of children’s reach. Ornaments and other decorations can be a choking hazard.[illinoispoisoncenter.org]
  • Protracted or prolonged vomiting, diarrhea and lethargy may occasionally occur. Toxicity may occur in patients with eating disorders who chronically consume large amounts of ipecac syrup.[rxmed.com]
  • […] amphetamines, atropine, barbiturates, neostigmine(Prostigmin),scopolamine ( Scopace)Coma - Atropine, barbiturates, bromide, carbon monoxide, chloral hydrate, ethanol, paraldehyde, salicylates,scopolamine Diaphoresis – Alcohol, fluoride, insulin, physostigmine Diarrhea[slideshare.net]
  • Kerosene was ingested to treat diarrhea and poison, applied to teeth in the case of toothache and dropped into the eye for conjunctivitis. Petrol was mainly used as a cure for whitlows (16%) and for toothache 2% as shown in Table 5.[ispub.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • GIT FEATURES • Irritation is common • spontaneous vomiting • nausea, diarrhoea and abdominal pain 15.[slideshare.net]
Dry Skin
  • […] phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants Hematemesis – Fluoride, mercuric chloride, phosporous, salicylates Kussmauls respirations - - Ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylates Partial or total blindness – Methanol Pink skin – Atropine ( flushed, dry[slideshare.net]
Muscle Weakness
  • Myopathy, with manifestations of muscle weakness and pain, hyporeflexia, tenderness and stiffness, has been the major presenting adverse effect.[rxmed.com]
  • Symptoms Symptoms of poisoning from these products include: Chest pain Coma Convulsions, tremors Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing Eye irritation if it touches the eyes Muscle weakness Nausea and vomiting Rash ( allergic reaction ) Salivating[m.ufhealth.org]
  • Symptoms Symptoms of poisoning from these products include: Chest pain Coma Convulsions Difficulty breathing Eye irritation if it touches the eyes Muscle weakness Nausea and vomiting Rash ( allergic reaction ) Salivating more than ususal Shortness of[stlukes-stl.com]
  • Chronic exposure Repeated abuse may result in: - loss of appetite, - loss of weight, - muscle weakness, - mental changes, - sleeplessness, irritability, restlessness, - fits. What to do Give first aid.[helid.digicollection.org]
Agitation
  • Arrhythmias usually occur before presentation and are unlikely to recur after presentation unless patients have excessive agitation.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Agitation, delirium - Alcohol, amphetamines, atropine, barbiturates, neostigmine(Prostigmin),scopolamine ( Scopace)Coma - Atropine, barbiturates, bromide, carbon monoxide, chloral hydrate, ethanol, paraldehyde, salicylates,scopolamineConstricted pupils[slideshare.net]
  • Use benzodiazepine if seizures, hypertension or agitation. Can use haloperidol if inadequate response to benzo. Cocaine may cause hypertensive emergency through CNS stimulation and its peripheral α-agonist effects.[icmteaching.com]
Dizziness
  • Nausea, vomiting, chest pain, dizziness, and severe depression of the central nervous system characterize the condition. Severe or fatal pneumonitis may occur if the substance is aspirated. Therefore induced emesis is contraindicated.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • From large amounts there may also be: - weakness, dizziness and headache, - drowsiness, - unconsciousness, - slow shallow breathing, - fits. After 6-24 hours: - wheezing and fast breathing, - lung oedema.[helid.digicollection.org]
  • The symptoms of an alcohol overdose may be mild, such as dizziness and nausea, or they may progress to more serious complications, such as vomiting, drowsiness, difficulty breathing, coma and death.[illinoispoisoncenter.org]
Confusion
  • It is not to be confused with Benzene.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Hyperventilation, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, respiratory arrest and aspiration pneumonitis can occur Tinnitus, deafness Tachycardia, hypotension, arrythmias Confusion, seizures, coma Severe acidosis GI bleeding, N&V Levels 50-100 moderate 100 severe[icmteaching.com]
Headache
  • From large amounts there may also be: - weakness, dizziness and headache, - drowsiness, - unconsciousness, - slow shallow breathing, - fits. After 6-24 hours: - wheezing and fast breathing, - lung oedema.[helid.digicollection.org]
  • Petroleum ether is metabolized by the liver with a biological half-life of 46–48 h. [3] Inhalation overexposure causes primarily central nervous system (CNS) effects (headaches, dizzines, nausea, fatigue, and incoordination).[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • TREATMENT 36. Initial treatment Emergency resuscitation Support of the patient’s ABCs and prevention further poison absorption 37.[slideshare.net]
  • TREATMENT • HOME TREATMENTTREATMENT IN HOSPITAL 19.[slideshare.net]
  • Treatment consists of chelation therapy. Most protocols don't recommend treatment for levels less than 45mcg/dl. For more specific information see The Harriet Lane Handbook, available through MDConsult (search for lead chelation).[casemed.case.edu]
  • Treatments reported other than gastric lavage were oxygen, oxygen under pressure, penicillin and other antibiotics, and corticosteroids.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • The person may receive: Cleaning of exposed skin Washing and examination of eyes as needed Treatment of allergic reactions as needed If the poison was swallowed, treatment may include: Activated charcoal Blood and urine tests Breathing support, including[stlukes-stl.com]

Prognosis

  • . • CLINICAL FEATURES • COMPLICATION • INVESTIGATION • TREATMENT • PROGNOSIS • CONCLUSION • REVIEW QUESTION 4.[slideshare.net]
  • Chest x-ray CT scan (advanced imaging) of the brain ECG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Laxative Medicines to treat symptoms Tube through the mouth into the stomach to empty the stomach (gastric lavage) Outlook (Prognosis[m.ufhealth.org]
  • Chest x-ray CT scan (advanced imaging) of the brain EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Laxative Medicines to treat symptoms Tube through the mouth into the stomach to empty the stomach (gastric lavage) Outlook (Prognosis[stlukes-stl.com]
  • Prognosis depends on the amount of poison absorbed, its toxicity, and the time interval between poisoning and treatment. 4. causes 5. Children accident poisoning cleaning agents insecticides paints cosmetics plants 6.[slideshare.net]

Etiology

  • ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS • Inappropriate storage • attractive colour • pleasant odour • low socioeconomic status • inquisitive nature • lack of parental awareness • hot seasons 8.[slideshare.net]

Epidemiology

  • The other cases were used to examine various epidemiologic characteristics of the problem. Gastric lavage was not harmful to the patients, but there was no conclusive evidence that it was beneficial.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • The epidemiology and clinical features of paraffin (kerosene) poisoning in rural African children. Ann Trop. Pediatric 17:49–55. r-18. Risser, A. L., and Mazur, L. J. (1995). Use of folk remedies in a Hispanic population.[ispub.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Aspiration of hydrocaron inhibit surfactant alveolar instability, early distal air way closure ventilation perfusion mismatch hypoxia 10.[slideshare.net]
  • The pathophysiology of poison depends on the substance that’s inhaled or ingested. The extent of damage depends on the pH of the substance, the amount ingested, its form ( solid or liquid), and the length of exposure to it.[slideshare.net]

Prevention

  • Prevent further absorption from skin contamination, remove the clothing covering the contaminated skin and immediately flush the area with large amounts of water. 45.[slideshare.net]
  • This is why activated charcoal helps to prevent the poison from being absorbed into the body.[rebuildingcivilization.com]
  • You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.[medlineplus.gov]
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, “VM&P Naphtha,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/NIOSH/npg/npgd0664.html .[atlenv.com]
  • You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.[m.ufhealth.org]

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