Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Pharyngeal Carcinoma

Pharyngeal Cancer


Presentation

  • We present two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the laryngopharynx in children less than 15 years of age. Both patients presented with a prolonged history of symptoms and extensive disease at diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 73-year-old female presented with a primary posterior pharyngeal wall squamous carcinoma and bilateral enlarged neck nodes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of carcinoma erysipelatoides due to poorly differentiated naso-pharyngeal carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At presentation 26% of the patients had metastatic lymph nodes. A total of 298 primary or secondary nodal recurrences were seen, 159 were treated, and 53 (53/298 approximately 18%) were controlled.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperthermia
  • There was a significant increase in CDDP uptake after hyperthermia at 44 degrees C. These results indicate that high hyperthermia effectively enhances subsequent CDDP cytotoxicity in human pharyngeal carcinoma KB cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Oral Ulcers
  • No other disease exists Presentation Epidemiology smokers drinkers Presentation hoarseness difficulty swallowing otalgia hemoptysis non-healing oral ulcer Treatment Diagnosis involves direct visualization and tissue biopsy Treatment is excision of the[medbullets.com]
Otalgia
  • No other disease exists Presentation Epidemiology smokers drinkers Presentation hoarseness difficulty swallowing otalgia hemoptysis non-healing oral ulcer Treatment Diagnosis involves direct visualization and tissue biopsy Treatment is excision of the[medbullets.com]
  • Symptoms and Signs Oropharyngeal cancer symptoms vary slightly depending on the subsite but typically patients present with sore throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysarthria, and otalgia.[merckmanuals.com]
Neck Mass
  • A neck mass, often cystic, is a common presenting symptom of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Because the symptoms of oropharyngeal cancer mimic those of common URIs, it often takes many months before patients are referred to a specialist.[merckmanuals.com]
  • mass Refractory otitis media, epixtaxis, referred ear pain, cranial neuropathy Most common cranial nerves affected are VI and V2 by tumor extension through foramen lacerum into cavernous sinus Syndromes: Jacod's: compression of CN II-VI by extension[en.wikibooks.org]
Swelling of the Scrotum
  • Complications Orchitis - males may experience pain or lumps in their testicles and swelling in the scrotum. However this rarely causes infertility problems Meningoencephalitis (infection of the central nervous system).[healthhub.sg]

Workup

Lymphocytic Infiltrate
  • Multivariate survival analysis showed that only two variables were significantly correlated with prognosis: AgNOR counts (P less than 0.001) and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration (P less than 0.027).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Both types may have a variety of infiltration with lymphocytes; in some cases there may be lymphocytes infiltrating between individual cells. This is termed lymphoepithelial carcinoma.[ozradonc.wikidot.com]

Treatment

  • […] for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare Tc(99m) MIBI SPECT imaging with computed tomography (CT) for assessment of post-radiotherapy treatment response in pharyngeal carcinoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively treatment results in pharyngeal cancers presenting with N2-N3 neck disease, using neck dissection followed by radical locoregional radiotherapy (RT) and to compare these results with those obtained[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment was completed by all, with toxic reactions including myelosuppression, mucositis, and dysphagia. Half of the patients required gastrostomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In contrast, treatment with oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ, a precursor of cysteine), which is known to increase cellular GSH level, decreased the susceptibility of KB cells to LAK killing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Multivariate survival analysis showed that only two variables were significantly correlated with prognosis: AgNOR counts (P less than 0.001) and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration (P less than 0.027).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis is invariably poor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: For patients with pharyngeal carcinoma, the HRQL at diagnosis seems to be an important factor for the prognosis of both HRQL over time and survival.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early pharynx cancer detected incidentally is associated with a relatively good cancer prognosis. Involvement of lymph nodes in the region is associated with a poorer prognosis of the cancer.[myvmc.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology Risk factors Tobacco consumption Alcohol use Further risk factors: nitrosamine ; consumption from salted/preserved foods, chronic iron deficiency, long-term consumption of carcinogenic food (e.g., aflatoxin ), exposure to radiation, immunosuppression[amboss.com]
  • Recently, HPV infection showed an etiologic role in the development of non-endemic EBV-negative nasopharyngeal cancers. HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than EBV-positive tumors 7.[radiopaedia.org]
  • HPV type 16 causes 60% of oropharyngeal cancers, and patients have become younger (median age 57 yr, and bimodal peaks at 30 yr and 55 yr) as HPV infection has emerged as an etiology.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The etiology of this unique cancer includes three co-factors that include host genetics, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection, and environmental factors.[grc.org]
  • Franseschi S, Bidoli E, Herroro R, Munoz N: Comparison of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx worldwide: etiological clues. Oral Oncol. 2000, 36: 106-15. 10.1016/S1368-8375(99)00070-6. CrossRef Google Scholar 15. PubMed.[link.springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • This review examines the scientific literature surrounding the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers, including but not limited to risk factors, disparities, preventative factors, and the epidemiology in countries outside the United States.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus far, large-scale epidemiological studies are not available yet to stratify these patients by their risks of developing a second primary cancer in the digestive tract including esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.[amboss.com]
  • With the increase in incidence of OPSCC, there has also been a shift in the epidemiology of the disease [2].[austinpublishinggroup.com]
  • University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Epidemiology Lexington USA[link.springer.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • This review examines the scientific literature surrounding the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers, including but not limited to risk factors, disparities, preventative factors, and the epidemiology in countries outside the United States.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention No sure way exists to prevent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, one can take steps to reduce the risk of the disease by reducing the intake of salt-cured foods and preserved meats or avoid these foods altogether. (1)Cancer Registry.[healthhub.sg]
  • Can Nasopharyngeal Cancer Be Prevented? Many cases of nasopharygeal cancer are not preventable, but taking these steps may help lower your risk of nasopharyngeal cancer: Avoid salt-cured fish and meats. Do not smoke. Do not drink a lot of alcohol.[webmd.com]
  • This study also pointed to a need for providing dentists with new educational updates on OPC prevention and detection [ 45 ].[link.springer.com]
  • The golden rule that prevention is better than cure still holds true. However, there is a conundrum as screening tests should be proven to reduce morbidity and mortality, besides being socially and ethically acceptable.[star2.com]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!