Phimosis refers to abnormal tightness of the foreskin, preventing its being retracted over the glans penis. Physiologic phimosis occurs naturally in males up to and including adolescence. Pathologic phimosis has several causes.
Phimosis presents with the following characteristic clinical features.
In case of phimosis, there is no role of investigations in the diagnosis. The diagnosis can be made exclusively by proper history and physical examination of the patient.
Physiologic phimosis resolves itself by the time a child reaches puberty and requires no medical or surgical intervention for its correction.
For pathological phimosis, the conservative treatment consists of stretching the foreskin over the glans either manually or with tools under the guidance of a physician which can resolve the problem by widening the preputial ring. But this can also lead to permanent swelling and although a non-invasive procedure, it is avoided.
Medical treatment of phimosis consists of steroids. Topical steroids (like cortisone) application on the preputial orifice can help soften the skin   .
The surgical treatment can be done by the following  .
Pathological phimosis is more likely to occur in case of repeated manual attempts to cause retraction of foreskin in congenital phimosis.
With proper care and treatment, complete resolution of the condition can occur. 80 to 90 % of the cases respond to corticosteroid therapy. 75% of the cases can be corrected with manual reduction method.
Phimosis can be either by physiological or pathological .
At the time of birth, the foreskin is firmly attached to glans penis. This persists through early childhood till puberty and resolves thereafter.
Inability of the foreskin to retract after attaining puberty constitutes pathological type of phimosis.
Pathological phimosis can have a number of causes.
Physiologic phimosis is common in about 10% of the males by the age of 3 and in about 5% by the age of 16. The incidence of phimosis is more among the uncircumcised as compared to the uncircumcised males. Phimosis rarely affects the females.
The normal penis is composed of the shaft, the glans penis and the prepuce. The inner surface of prepuce is firmly adherent to the glans in infancy and early childhood (physiological phimosis). These adhesions later on breakdown and form pearly white beads called “smegma” under the foreskin.
It is not possible to prevent the congenital (physiological) form of phimosis. However, pathological phimosis can be prevented by the use of the following preventive measures.
Phimosis is a penile disorder in which the foreskin of the penis is attached to the underlying penile tissue and cannot be retracted over it. The disease is common in the males who have not been circumcised.
Difficulty while urinating or while performing normal sexual activity are common complaints associated with phimosis.
The condition may also be found in females to a lesser extent (clitoral phimosis). Closely related to phimosis is another disease, paraphimosis, in which the skin of penis is retracted beyond the corona and cannot be returned back to the unretracted position.
Phimosis is the condition in which the foreskin of the penis is attached to the underlying skin and cannot be retracted over the head of the penis. This can lead to painful erection and difficulty while urinating and during intercourse. Erection is also painful.
The attachment of foreskin to glans penis (head of the penis) is normal in childhood and it detaches itself at puberty. If the condition persists even after puberty, it is known as phimosis. Non-invasive procedure of treating phimosis consists of retracting the foreskin over the head manually. Ointments are also available for this purpose. Observing proper hygienic measures can help avoid phimosis in adults.