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Phlebotomus Fever

Pappataci Fever


Presentation

  • Other symptoms include headache, fever, and abdominal cramps 其它症状包括头痛、发烧及腹痛 Therefore, although yellow fever has never been reported from Asia, this region is at risk because the appropriate mosquitos and primates are present.[hujiang.com]
  • 213 55 3 8 Jul 134 79 78 4 4 Aug 205 133 62 39 6 Sep 205 95 42 72 5 Oct 73 45 63 18 1 Nov 30 14 17 4 — Dec 3 6 — — — Sandfly fever is due to a small virus which is present in the blood of a patient from twenty-four hours before till twenty-four hours[nzetc.victoria.ac.nz]
  • Worldwide, leishmaniosis is one of the most important vector-borne diseases (besides malaria, lymphatic filariosis and sleeping sickness) and presents as a large variety of disease manifestations differing markedly in their severity and health impact.[cvbd.org]
  • However in spite of present of Vector P. papatasi in different continents no report has been published yet from different part of world. It supposed the disease may be present in other continent too.[scialert.net]
Fever
  • Pappataci fever (also known as Phlebotomus fever and, somewhat confusingly, sandfly fever and three-day fever) is a vector-borne febrile arboviral infection caused by three serotypes of Phlebovirus.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Alternative Titles: phlebotomus fever, sand fly fever, sandfly fever, three-day fever Pappataci fever , also called phlebotomus fever, three-day fever , or sandfly fever , acute , infectious, febrile disease caused by a phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae[britannica.com]
  • All infected subjects developed fever which varied in duration from 6 to 74 hours. The most common symptoms during sandfly fever were headache, anorexia, myalgia, photophobia, low back and retro-orbital pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • fever Human disease Sandfly fever Sandfly-borne arboviral fever Sandfly-borne bunyavirus fever (disorder) Sandfly-borne phleboviral disease pappataci fever Sandfly-borne bunyavirus fever Statements Identifiers Sitelinks Wikipedia (12 entries) edit Wikibooks[wikidata.org]
  • Abstract Eight new members of the phlebotomus fever arbovirus serogroup (family Bunyaviridae; genus Phlebovirus) from the Amazon region of Brazil are described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pain
  • As in dengue , symptoms include severe frontal headache and postorbital pain, intense muscular and joint pains, and a flushed appearance of the face but, unlike dengue, no true rash or subsequent scaling occurs.[britannica.com]
  • The most common symptoms during sandfly fever were headache, anorexia, myalgia, photophobia, low back and retro-orbital pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] fləbot′əməs] Etymology: Gk, phleps tomos, cutting; L, febris, fever an acute mild infection caused by one of five distinct arboviruses transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly, characterized by rapidly developing fever, headache, eye pain[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Home North American English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
Malaise
  • Home North American English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • Home British & World English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • Africa and Central Asia during dry, hot weather phlebotomus fever An acute viral infection, transmitted by the fly Phlebotomus papatosii and characterized by fever, pains in the head and eyes, inflammation of the CONJUNCTIVA , LEUKOPENIA and general malaise[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Merriam-Webster: sandfly fever phlebotomus fever Phlebotomus papatasii a virus disease of brief duration that is characterized by fever, headache, eye pain, malaise, and leukopenia and that is caused by either of two ... (25 of 72 words, pronunciation[memidex.com]
Fatigue
  • Fatigue, a slow heart rate and low blood pressure may persist from few days to several weeks but complete recovery is the rule. Three serotypes of Phlebovirus are known as the causative agents: Naples virus, Sicilian virus and Toscana virus.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Following the febrile period, there is great fatigue and weakness, accompanied by slow pulse and frequently subnormal blood pressure . Convalescence may require a few days or several weeks, but the prognosis is always favourable.[britannica.com]
  • Blastocystis hominis infection Botulism Brain abscess Brucellosis Bunyaviridae infections misc Campylobacteriosis Candidiasis Chancroid Chlamydia infections misc Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection Cholecystitis cholangitis Cholera Chromomycosis Chronic fatigue[books.google.com]
  • Blastomycosis Botulism Brain abscess Brucellosis Bunyaviridae infections misc Campylobacteriosis Candidiasis Capillariasis intestinal Chancroid Chlamydia infections misc Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection Cholecystitis cholangitis Cholera Chromomycosis Chronic fatigue[books.google.com]
Weakness
  • Following the febrile period, there is great fatigue and weakness, accompanied by slow pulse and frequently subnormal blood pressure . Convalescence may require a few days or several weeks, but the prognosis is always favourable.[britannica.com]
  • After the temperature had returned to normal many patients still felt weak, mentally depressed, and had little appetite. Many lost a considerable amount of weight. There were no deaths from the disease and no known sequelae.[nzetc.victoria.ac.nz]
Hemoptysis
  • The pulmonary migration of larvae is associated with fever, cough, occasionally hemoptysis 蛔蚴肺部移行,可伴有发热、咳嗽、偶尔咯血。[hujiang.com]
Abdominal Cramps
  • Other symptoms include headache, fever, and abdominal cramps 其它症状包括头痛、发烧及腹痛 Therefore, although yellow fever has never been reported from Asia, this region is at risk because the appropriate mosquitos and primates are present.[hujiang.com]
Tachycardia
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom severe frontal headaches, has_symptom muscle ache, has_symptom joint aches, has_symptom flushing of the face, and has_symptom tachycardia. ( Human Disease Ontology , DOID_11360 ) Similar Terms Downloads & Tools[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
Slow Pulse
  • Following the febrile period, there is great fatigue and weakness, accompanied by slow pulse and frequently subnormal blood pressure . Convalescence may require a few days or several weeks, but the prognosis is always favourable.[britannica.com]
Tachycardia
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom severe frontal headaches, has_symptom muscle ache, has_symptom joint aches, has_symptom flushing of the face, and has_symptom tachycardia. ( Human Disease Ontology , DOID_11360 ) Similar Terms Downloads & Tools[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
Myalgia
  • The most common symptoms during sandfly fever were headache, anorexia, myalgia, photophobia, low back and retro-orbital pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • : Gk, phleps tomos, cutting; L, febris, fever an acute mild infection caused by one of five distinct arboviruses transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly, characterized by rapidly developing fever, headache, eye pain, conjunctivitis, myalgia[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Flushing
  • A few days after the infective bite, a feeling of lassitude, abdominal distress and chills develop followed by fever of 39 C to 40 C, severe frontal headaches, muscle and joint aches, flushing of the face and a fast heart rate.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • As in dengue , symptoms include severe frontal headache and postorbital pain, intense muscular and joint pains, and a flushed appearance of the face but, unlike dengue, no true rash or subsequent scaling occurs.[britannica.com]
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom severe frontal headaches, has_symptom muscle ache, has_symptom joint aches, has_symptom flushing of the face, and has_symptom tachycardia. ( Human Disease Ontology , DOID_11360 ) Similar Terms Downloads & Tools[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
Eye Pain
  • Home North American English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • Home British & World English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • pain, conjunctivitis, myalgia, and occasionally a macular or urticarial rash.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Merriam-Webster: sandfly fever phlebotomus fever Phlebotomus papatasii a virus disease of brief duration that is characterized by fever, headache, eye pain, malaise, and leukopenia and that is caused by either of two ... (25 of 72 words, pronunciation[memidex.com]
Photophobia
  • The most common symptoms during sandfly fever were headache, anorexia, myalgia, photophobia, low back and retro-orbital pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Research Article Minireview on Sand Fly Fever A Mehrabi Tavana ABSTRACT Little is known about sand fly fever with manifestations such as severe fever, headache and photophobia.[scialert.net]
Suggestibility
  • Age-specific antibody rates suggested that Sicilian and Karimabad viruses were endemic in the study area but that Naples virus activity was sporadic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results of the above laboratory studies suggest that Arboledas virus is maintained in nature by two mechanisms: vertical (transovarial) transmission in the insect vector, and an alternating marsupial-sand fly cycle.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A small serum survey carried out with the human isolate, Alenquer virus, suggests that it rarely infects man.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Failure to demonstrate similar activity in laboratory-reared sandflies suggests that the active principle is antibody contained in ingested human blood. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Article metrics loading...[ajtmh.org]
  • Symbols Support WR Privacy Policy Forums Suggestions phlebotomus fever Pathology See sandfly fever.[wordreference.com]
Headache
  • The most common symptoms during sandfly fever were headache, anorexia, myalgia, photophobia, low back and retro-orbital pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Home North American English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • Home British & World English phlebotomus fever phlebotomus fever noun Medicine Entomology A viral disease, endemic in the Mediterranean region, transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi, and characterized by fever, malaise, headache, and eye pain[en.oxforddictionaries.com]
  • A few days after the infective bite, a feeling of lassitude, abdominal distress and chills develop followed by fever of 39 C to 40 C, severe frontal headaches, muscle and joint aches, flushing of the face and a fast heart rate.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • As in dengue , symptoms include severe frontal headache and postorbital pain, intense muscular and joint pains, and a flushed appearance of the face but, unlike dengue, no true rash or subsequent scaling occurs.[britannica.com]
Frontal Headache
  • A few days after the infective bite, a feeling of lassitude, abdominal distress and chills develop followed by fever of 39 C to 40 C, severe frontal headaches, muscle and joint aches, flushing of the face and a fast heart rate.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • As in dengue , symptoms include severe frontal headache and postorbital pain, intense muscular and joint pains, and a flushed appearance of the face but, unlike dengue, no true rash or subsequent scaling occurs.[britannica.com]
  • The initial symptoms started with fever for about three days, frontal headache, nausea and arthralgia. After a short time of clinical improvement symptoms recurred and our patient entered hospital with signs of severe meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom severe frontal headaches, has_symptom muscle ache, has_symptom joint aches, has_symptom flushing of the face, and has_symptom tachycardia. ( Human Disease Ontology , DOID_11360 ) Similar Terms Downloads & Tools[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
Frontal Headache
  • A few days after the infective bite, a feeling of lassitude, abdominal distress and chills develop followed by fever of 39 C to 40 C, severe frontal headaches, muscle and joint aches, flushing of the face and a fast heart rate.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • As in dengue , symptoms include severe frontal headache and postorbital pain, intense muscular and joint pains, and a flushed appearance of the face but, unlike dengue, no true rash or subsequent scaling occurs.[britannica.com]
  • The initial symptoms started with fever for about three days, frontal headache, nausea and arthralgia. After a short time of clinical improvement symptoms recurred and our patient entered hospital with signs of severe meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The infection has_symptom fever, has_symptom severe frontal headaches, has_symptom muscle ache, has_symptom joint aches, has_symptom flushing of the face, and has_symptom tachycardia. ( Human Disease Ontology , DOID_11360 ) Similar Terms Downloads & Tools[amp.pharm.mssm.edu]
Dizziness
  • Within two and one-half to five days after exposure, there is suddenly a feeling of lassitude, abdominal distress, and dizziness, followed within one day by a chilly sensation and a rapid rise in temperature during the next day or two to 102 –104.5 F[britannica.com]
Apathy
  • . 3. sluggishness, indifference, or apathy. 4. self-possession, calmness, […] Phlegmasia phlegmasia phleg·ma·sia (flěg-mā’zhə, -zē-ə) n.[definithing.com]

Workup

Complement Fixing Antibody
  • Little complement fixing antibody was detected in convalescent sera but most subjects developed significant rises in hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • There is no specific treatment for the disease. Pain killers and fluid replacement may be useful.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Treatment is entirely symptomatic. Sand flies breed in vegetation within a few hundred feet of human habitations. However, these breeding places are difficult to discover, rendering larvicidal control impractical.[britannica.com]
  • Virol. (1996) [ Pubmed ] Prospects for treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers with ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Huggins, J.W. Rev. Infect.[wikigenes.org]
  • The diseases is endemic in many Middle East countries and it supposed many patients are referred to Medical center, without correct diagnosis and perhaps treatment.[scialert.net]

Prognosis

  • Convalescence may require a few days or several weeks, but the prognosis is always favourable. Treatment is entirely symptomatic. Sand flies breed in vegetation within a few hundred feet of human habitations.[britannica.com]

Etiology

  • American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 20(3): 483-490, 1971 Studies on the Etiology of Phlebotomus and Dengue Fever. I. Introduction . Ann. Trop. Med.[eurekamag.com]
  • Phlebotomus fever, also commonly called pappataci or sandfly fever, is a specific febrile disease of virus etiology which is of considerable military importance because of its occurrence in many parts of the world where troops are stationed.[jamanetwork.com]
  • . : The Etiology of Phlebotomus Fever. J. State Med. 32 , 461 (1924). Google Scholar 20. Van Rooyen, C. E. and A. J. Rhodes : Virus Diseases of Man. p. 516. London: Oxford University Press. 1940 Google Scholar 21. Sabin, A.[link.springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • More detailed clinical and epidemiological studies should be conducted in Amazonia in order to define the public health impact caused by phleboviruses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The serologic studies also suggest that the ecology of Sicilian and Karimabad viruses involves chiefly sandflies, gerbils, and man, an epidemiologic pattern previously demonstrated for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the same region of Iran.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She is specialized in the epidemiology of emerging bacterial pathogens, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and biofilm related infections.[books.google.com]
  • Springer Science & Business Media , 06.12.2012 - 204 Seiten This book deals both with the epidemiologic background and the specific characteristics of vector-borne and emerging viral infections which may be spread all over the world due to today’s rapid[books.google.de]
  • Biochemical studies on the Phlebotomus fever group viruses (Bunyaviridae family). ( 225523 ) Robeson G....Bishop D.H. 1979 9 Rio Grande--a new phlebotomus fever group virus from south Texas. ( 20785 ) Calisher C.H....Lazuick J.S. 1977 10 Studies on the epidemiology[malacards.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Prevention of sandfly bites, and control of sandflies and their breeding grounds with insecticides are the principal methods for prevention. Mosquito nets may not be sufficient to prevent sandfly bites.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • These mouse-adapted strains provide new tools for diagnosis, epidemiologic survey and prevention of sandfly fever. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Article metrics loading...[ajtmh.org]
  • Europe's journal on infectious disease surveillance, epidemiology, prevention and control Home Eurosurveillance Volume 17, Issue 27, 05/Jul/2012 Article Rapid communications Open Access Abstract Full-Text References Supplementary Material Metrics/Cited[eurosurveillance.org]
  • In rodents and monkeys infected with Rift Valley fever virus, ribavirin therapy resulted in reduced mortality; prophylactic administration to volunteers infected with sandfly fever virus, Sicilian strain, prevented development of illness [2] .[wikigenes.org]
  • Fig. 1: Life cycle of arboviruses (Sánchez-Secoand Navarro, 2005) Because of no vaccine available to prevent the infection.[scialert.net]

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