A panic attack is the most common and disabling symptom of a phobia. With a panic attack, the individual presents with a pounding or racing heart, shortened breath, rapid speech or cessation of speech, dry mouth, nausea or upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, shaking or trembling, chest pain or tightness, choking sensation, dizziness or lightheadedness, excessive sweating, heightened expectation of disaster, etc. .
However, it is not compulsory for these presentations of panic attacks to be visible for accurate diagnosis. The intensity of the anxiety can also vary among people with phobias.
In addition, they were more likely to have a comorbid diagnosis of a physical health condition, to report more exaggerated danger expectancies, and to report fears that focused more on physical symptoms (e.g., faintness and nausea) in comparison to youth [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Physical symptoms, including rapid heartbeat, lightheadedness, nausea, shortness of breath, and trembling occur. [pchtreatment.com]
These may include one or more of the following: Trouble breathing Nausea or other gastrointestinal symptoms Increased heart rate Dizziness or lightheadedness Trouble swallowing or a sense of choking Sweating or chills Tightness or pain in the chest Reactions [centerforanxietydisorders.com]
Symptoms of Trypophobia range from nausea and itchy skin to full blown panic attacks. 13) Triskaidekaphobia- fear of the number 13 Many people are superstitious about the number 13 but few have a fully fledged phobia. [telegraph.co.uk]
There is evidence for dissociable neural correlates of phasic fear and sustained anxiety. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] pho·bia | \ ˈfō-bē-ə \ Definition of phobia (Entry 1 of 2) : an exaggerated usually inexplicable and illogical fear of a particular object, class of objects, or situation Definition of -phobia (Entry 2 of 2) 1 : exaggerated fear of acro phobia 2 : intolerance [merriam-webster.com]
Among the more common examples are acrophobia, fear of high places; claustrophobia, fear of closed places; nyctophobia, fear of the dark; ochlophobia, fear of crowds; xenophobia, fear of strangers; and zoophobia, fear of animals. [britannica.com]
- Type A Personality
Specific phobia A child with specific phobia feels and exhibits intense fear of a particular person or type of person, place, object, activity, or situation. [childrenshospital.org]
Initially, this was because of difficult venous access but more recently because of severe distress and agitation when approached with a cannula. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
"I get easily agitated." "I can be stirred up easily.". * Anxiety: " I worry about almost everything ." "I'm always fearful or on edge about bad things that might happen." "I always expect the worst to happen." "I am a very anxious person." [mentalhealth.com]
When it comes to diagnosis, there are no diagnostic laboratory tests for phobias. Diagnosis is most of the time dependent on the patient’s account of their experiences. 
To rule out anxiety secondary medical conditions however, some laboratory tests can be carried out. Some of this includes drug screening for substance-induced anxiety, fasting glucose to rule out hypoglycaemia, thyroid function tests to rule out hypo/hyperthyroidism and 24-hour urine for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) for pheochromocytoma.
Treatment for phobias generally involves therapeutic techniques, medications and a combination of both. 
Cognitive behavioural therapy is the most commonly used therapeutic treatment for phobias. It involves an exposure to the source of the fear in a controlled environment. The treatment has deconditioning abilities and can reduce anxiety. The therapy focuses on identifying and changing negative thoughts, dysfunctional beliefs, as well as negative reactions to fear. Some of the newer techniques expose the patient safely to the source of the phobia.
Antidepressant and anti-anxiety medications can also help calm the mind and physical reactions to fear . Most of the time, the best results are seen with a combination of medications and professional therapy.
Following proper resolution of symptoms, most phobia patients will respond to treatment . The most positive outlook is seen in patients with a specific phobic disorder while those that have social anxiety disorders or agarophobia display residual symptoms. Such individuals also face the risk of a reoccurrence following successful treatment. However, patients who have social anxiety disorders with extensive deficits in social skills generally find it hard to respond positively to treatment.
There is no singular etiologic factor for development of a phobia. However, there are several factors that may contribute to its development :
Specific incidents or traumas
An individual that had a harrowing flying experience at a young age may end up developing a phobia about flying.
Responses picked up in early life
It is possible to develop the same specific phobia as a parent or an older sibling. Factors in the family environment such as worried or anxious parents can have an effect on the way you cope with anxiety much later in life.
It has been proven that some individuals are born with the tendency to be more anxious than others.
When an individual has a strong reaction or panic attack following a particular situation or subject and people around react in an embarrassment inducing manner, he or she can develop intense anxiety about ever being in such a situation again.
Long term stress can lead to feelings of anxiety and depression making it harder for the individual to cope in certain situations. This will leave them feeling more fearful or anxious about being in such a situation ever again. Over a long period of time, this can lead to the development of a phobia.
Phobias are a relatively common form of anxiety disorders . Its distribution is heterogeneous by age and gender. In the United States between 8.7% and 18.1% of people suffer from phobias. It is also the most common mental condition among women across all age groups and the second most common illness among men that are older than 25. Around 10% of all children experience specific phobias during their lives and social phobias also occur in 1-3% of children and adolescents.
Studies have also shown that women have a higher incidence of phobias than males. Figures show 26.5% for females and 12.4% for males. Multiple phobias can be found in 4% of females and 1.5% of males. Women are 4 times more likely to have a fear of animals compared. This is the highest disparity in incidence amongst all other forms of social phobias. Other phobias such as situational and social phobias are also more common in girls than in boys.
The underlying mechanism in the development of phobia is an interaction between the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex and insula hyperactivity . This theory was put forward following research which showed significant reductions in site-specific neural activity in these areas following evidence-based exposure treatments. Neuroimaging studies have also shown an increase in amygdala activation following exposure to cues relevant to the phobia as well as heightened activity in the insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex regions.
The most common way to prevent phobic disorders is to tackle it at the bud by ensuring the individual receives psychotherapy or medication following any form of overwhelming exposure .
A phobia is a debilitating and overwhelming fear of a place, object, situation, feeling or animal . The phobias are much more pronounced than fears. It develops when the patient has a heightened and totally unrealistic sense of danger about a situation or object.
Severe cases of phobias may lead to an individual reorganising their life to avoid the things that are responsible for the heightened fear. This will lead to a disruption of day-to-day life and also lead to considerable anguish.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. This means that the individual may not show any symptoms until they come in contact with the source of the phobia. However, it is possible for an individual to feel anxious or panicky by just thinking about the source of a phobia, a condition referred to as anticipatory anxiety.
A phobia refers to an overwhelming and unreasonable fear of a subject, object, situation which poses small real danger but provokes the feeling of avoidance or anxiety in an individual. Unlike the small anxiety people feel with taking tests of addressing a crowd, a phobia lasts far longer and causes some form of intense physical and psychological reactions which often affect the patient negatively at work or at play.
There are various types of phobias. Some people are scared of large spaces while others cannot cope with some social situations. Others on the other hand have a specific phobia like the fear of dogs, heights or air travel.
Most phobias don’t require treatment but if it gets to the point of affecting your daily life negatively, therapies and treatments can be deployed to help overcome the fears permanently.
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