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Photosensitive Epilepsy


  • […] region according to the EEG presentation, though no definite side could be identified and no focal clinical presentations was observed.[nature.com]
  • Modern digital television sets that cannot be maladjusted in this way and refresh the image on the screen at very high speed present less of a risk than older television sets.[en.m.wikipedia.org]
  • After we ascertained that 28 EDM festivals, with a total of 400 343 spectators were present in the study cohort, we calculated the power of our sample size.[bmjopen.bmj.com]
  • Here, we evaluate if intrinsic dysfunction of this network is present in brain activity at rest, independently of any stimulus and of any paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In various ways they are clearly different diseases, although presenting with clinical signs with similar characteristics regarding motor deficits, sensory and alterations of consciousness.[atlasofscience.org]
Eye Pain
  • For many people, flashing lights, bright lights, or bright colors can cause headaches, discomfort, dizziness, or eye pain. This is often referred to as photosensitivity or photophobia.[verywellhealth.com]
Muscle Twitch
  • Also, try to recall any unusual symptoms that may have preceded the seizure, such as: Dizziness Blurred vision Muscle twitching If you notice these warning signs, cover one eye and turn your head from the stimuli immediately.[webmd.com]
  • These signs could be things such as dizziness, blurred vision, loss of awareness or muscle twitching. If this happens, you should immediately stop them playing the game.[epilepsyqueensland.com.au]
Stiffness of the Lower Limbs
  • The patient presented as covering eyes with left hand, then right deviation of head, followed by rhythmicity jitter of the right upper limb, stiff of bilateral lower limbs, and then gradually evolved to generalized limbs clonus.[nature.com]
  • Interactive Medical Cases Image Challenge Images in Clinical Medicine Videos in Clinical Medicine Quick Takes View all multimedia Treating Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria State-Level Action on Drug Prices The Element of Surprise Closed Reduction of a Fractured[nejm.org]
Panic Attacks
  • Genton P, Bartolomei F, Guerrini R: Panic attacks mistaken for relapse of epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995;36:48–51.[karger.com]
  • I'm constantly thinking about my escape route and have even had panic attacks when lights have come on." Image caption Flashing lights in an episode of Pokemon, videos by Kanye West and Rihanna and the movie Twilight have all caused concerns.[bbc.com]
  • A flicker rate of between 5 and 30 times a second is the rate that is most likely to cause problems and EEG test will show that there are changes to the electrical impulses in the brain when looking at flashing lights.[youngepilepsy.org.uk]
  • If you have photosenstive epilepsy, or if you suspect that you may have, or IF YOU DO BETTER OUT IN THE SUN AND WORSE INDOORS ( particularly office buildings and commercial buildings ) ( obviously you could have Environmental Illness or Claustrophobia[amazon.com]
  • […] determined one or several subsequent ‘epileptic seizures’ as the most likely diagnosis, based on the combination of witness reports (eg, sudden onset, loss of consciousness, muscle contractions) and physical findings (eg, lateral tongue bite, urinary incontinence[bmjopen.bmj.com]
Onset around Puberty
  • Although photic-induced occipital seizures are associated with a brain lesion in some patients, the more typical pattern of recurrent photosensitive occipital seizures is usually observed in the context of idiopathic epilepsy, with onset around puberty[medlink.com]
  • A seizure that is brought on by a visual trigger is described as a visual reflex seizure, a photo convulsive seizure, or a photosensitive seizure.[verywellhealth.com]
  • Medication and avoiding visual triggers can help gain seizure control. How do I know if I have photosensitive epilepsy? Some people only have photosensitive seizures, while others may have other seizure types as well as photosensitive seizures.[epilepsy.org.au]
  • […] reduce the risk of a seizure.[de.slideshare.net]
  • But boys tend to have more seizures. That's probably because they spend more time playing video games, a common seizure trigger. What Causes Seizures in People With Photosensitive Epilepsy? Seizure triggers vary from person to person.[webmd.com]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • Rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur following the absence or myoclonic seizure. When generalized tonic-clonic seizures occur, it is usually by accident.[epilepsy.com]
  • People with photosensitive epilepsy typically have what's called a "generalized tonic-clonic seizure."This is also known as a convulsive seizure. A tonic-clonic seizure should last no more than five minutes.[de.slideshare.net]
  • VEEG: video electroencephalography; PCR: photoconvulsive response; IPS: intermittent photic stimulation; GTCS: generalized tonic-clonic seizures; PGTCS: partial secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures; PS: partial seizures; ES: electrical seizures[nature.com]
  • People with photosensitive epilepsy typically have what's called a "generalized tonic-clonic seizure." This is also known as a convulsive seizure. A tonic-clonic seizure should last no more than five minutes.[webmd.com]
  • They are described as tonic-clonic seizures or grand mal seizures. Myoclonic seizures : Myoclonic seizures are characterized by involuntary rhythmic spasms alternating with relaxation.[verywellhealth.com]
  • Take Care This Christmas For a helping hand this Christmas don’t forget that we have a useful Christmas Guide to coping with epilepsy. You’ll find a wealth of information, case studies, and useful tips.[alert-it.co.uk]
Motor Symptoms
  • For example, we should consider that whether the “GTCS” was true, or some sensory or motor symptoms of focal seizures were unable to be expressed by the children or were neglected by parents and clinicians.[nature.com]
  • The patient presented as rigidity followed by limbs clonus.[nature.com]


Multifocal Discharges
  • In the 13 patients with interictal focal or multifocal discharges, the locations included unilateral or bilateral occipital region alone in 5, unilateral or bilateral posterior area alone in 4, Rolandic areas alone in one, overlapping between Rolandic[nature.com]
Focal Interictal Epileptiform Discharges
  • Previously, in a series of GGE patients, focal interictal epileptiform discharges and semiologic features of focal onset had been observed in 35% patients population 25.[nature.com]
Multifocal Spikes
  • The interictal EEG showed generalized spike-and-wave alone in 8 patients, focal or multifocal spike-and-wave alone in 3 patients, both generalized and focal spike-and-wave in 10 patients. No interictal discharges were observed in one patient.[nature.com]
Focal Spikes
  • The interictal EEG showed generalized spike-and-wave alone in 8 patients, focal or multifocal spike-and-wave alone in 3 patients, both generalized and focal spike-and-wave in 10 patients. No interictal discharges were observed in one patient.[nature.com]


  • Epilepsy: Risks, Differences, And Treatments Epilepsy Treatment Update: Fats In The Human Brain Could Suppress Seizures, Study Finds[medicaldaily.com]
  • Photosensitive Epilepsy Treatment Tips The most important step for photosensitive epilepsy treatment is to be properly diagnosed.[theraspecs.com]
  • I have even seen websites for epilepsy treatment with blinking icons or scrolling banners. Real, real intelligent.[amazon.com]
  • Treatment If you have photosensitive epilepsy, your seizure management will focus on avoiding the visual stimuli that provoke seizures and/or medical treatment with anticonvulsants.[verywellhealth.com]
  • CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data suggest that blue cross-polarized lenses may be useful in the treatment of photosensitive epilepsies and that their efficacy can be predicted in the EEG laboratory.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Prognosis and Therapy The prognosis for control of seizures induced by visual stimulation is generally very good, [67,93,94,95,96,97] especially in pure photosensitive epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in which valproate is the drug of choice,[medscape.com]
  • It includes details of many recent studies including drug therapy and the genetics of photosensitivity and also looks at the long term prognosis for the condition, pattern sensitivity, video game epilepsy and provides advice on procedures to reduce the[amazon.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis Edit No cure is available for PSE, although the sensitivity of some people may diminish over time. Medical treatment is available to reduce sensitivity, with sodium valproate being commonly prescribed.[en.m.wikipedia.org]
  • ., Harding GFA : The prognosis of photosensitivity. Epilepsia 1986 ;27: 569 - 575.[journals.sagepub.com]


  • In this article, the authors explain the clinical, electrophysiological, and etiological characteristics of this epilepsy syndrome.[medlink.com]
  • ES was defined as EEG seizure pattern similarly to the ictal pattern of PS but not accompanied by clinical manifestations and was classified as subclinical seizure activity. 2) An idiopathic etiology was considered according to the normal findings on[nature.com]
  • […] where etiology may also be either idiopathic or symptomatic.[dovepress.com]


  • Concert organisers and audience should warn against the risk of seizures and promote precautionary measures in susceptible individuals. epilepsy epidemiology preventive medicine This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative[bmjopen.bmj.com]
  • Epidemiology Edit PSE affects approximately one in 4,000 people, or 5% of individuals with epilepsy. [1] It is more common in women and people who are younger. [1] Society and culture Edit Law Edit A law requiring PSE warnings be displayed on packages[en.m.wikipedia.org]
  • Definition and Epidemiology Photosensitive epilepsy is a well-known condition characterized by seizures in patients who show photoparoxysmal responses on electroencephalography (EEG) elicited by intermittent photic stimulation. [1,2] First, it is important[medscape.com]
  • Seizures induced by other special conditions, such as fever or alcohol withdrawal, are not RS. 2 Table 1 summarizes the main epidemiological, clinical, genetic, therapeutic, and prognostic features of RS. 10, 31 Table 1 Summary of the main epidemiological[dovepress.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The pathophysiology of photosensitivity is still remained unclear.[nature.com]
  • Further studies could reveal the findings’ significance in the pathophysiology of epilepsy in children with ASD.[mdedge.com]
  • Dantendorfer K, Amering M, Baischer W, Berger P, Steinberger K, Windhaber J, Katschnig H: Is there a pathophysiological link between panic disorder and epilepsy? Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995;91:430–432.[karger.com]
  • Probably, the pathophysiologic mechanisms of photoparoxysmal response in some photosensitive patients might undergo an evolutionary process. [51] The large majority of patients do not need anticonvulsant therapy, but, when needed, the drug of choice is[medscape.com]
  • […] of epilepsy in discotheques, where many youngsters experience their first exposure to stroboscopic light effects. 3 Also, the epileptic ‘outbreak’ following after television airing of an episode of Pokémon in Japan being a well-known example. 4 The pathophysiology[bmjopen.bmj.com]


  • Learn about contraception and ways to prevent and ways to prevent problems during pregnancy. Other medications that have been used to treat this epilepsy include benzodiazepines like clobazam (Onfi) or clonazepam, and topiramate (Topamax).[epilepsy.com]
  • Luckily, there’s a new Epilepsy blocker for sufferers that helps prevent epileptic seizures and it comes in the form of a Chrome extension.[reclaimthenet.org]
  • Some recommendations regarding photo convulsive seizure prevention include: Placing a light filter on your television or computer screen to prevent excessive light contrast Avoiding situations with flashing lights Looking away from graphic patterns and[verywellhealth.com]
  • If you see a person having a seizure, take these steps: Roll the person onto his or her side to prevent choking. Cushion the head. Loosen any tight clothing around the neck. Keep the airway open.[de.slideshare.net]
  • Therefore closing both eyes does not prevent photosensitive reaction but on contrary may increase risk because of red-tinted light filtering through the eyelids.[epilepsygroup.com]

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