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Plant Poisoning

Plant Poisonings


Presentation

  • We present a sporadic case of suicidal plant poisoning wherein a 24-year-old man consumed 'gowri gedde' to end his life. Initially he presented with severe vomiting, diarrhoea and epigastric pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • If the victim develops a fever for several days or experiences an excessive amount of inflammation, irritation, oozing, or itching, he/she should be treated by a doctor.[seniorprotection.com]
  • […] hyperthermia or seizures, possibly physostigmine Dieffenbachia (dumbcane) Oral mucosal damage due to Ca oxalate crystals in leaves Supportive care and demulsification (eg, with milk or ice cream) Fava beans In patients with G6PD deficiency, gastroenteritis, fever[merckmanuals.com]
  • In South America, the fruit has been used to treat colds, fever, and diseases as varied as edema and epilepsy, though no clinical trials support these uses.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Fever
  • If the victim develops a fever for several days or experiences an excessive amount of inflammation, irritation, oozing, or itching, he/she should be treated by a doctor.[seniorprotection.com]
  • […] hyperthermia or seizures, possibly physostigmine Dieffenbachia (dumbcane) Oral mucosal damage due to Ca oxalate crystals in leaves Supportive care and demulsification (eg, with milk or ice cream) Fava beans In patients with G6PD deficiency, gastroenteritis, fever[merckmanuals.com]
  • In South America, the fruit has been used to treat colds, fever, and diseases as varied as edema and epilepsy, though no clinical trials support these uses.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Epilepsy
  • In South America, the fruit has been used to treat colds, fever, and diseases as varied as edema and epilepsy, though no clinical trials support these uses.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sore Throat
  • Symptoms included sore throat (92%), sore lips (73%), swollen tongue (54%) and gastrointestinal signs (41%). A plant locally called prik was the source of poisoning (97.0 vs. 28.7%, odds ratio 74.3, P[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rhinitis
  • Sialorrhea, stomatitis, oropharyngeal dryness, a burning sensation in the mouth, rhinitis and nasal septal perforation, hearing loss and vestibular disturbances can be the result of intoxications by poisonous plants, growing or used in Europe and the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vomiting
  • The most common symptoms were vomiting, coma, and seizures. Seven of the patients had confirmed hypoglycemia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • American Holly Berries are toxic, contain Ilicin Clinical signs Nausea, severe vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea Treatment - Ipecac, activated charcoal 14. Jerusalem Cherry 15.[slideshare.net]
  • Initially he presented with severe vomiting, diarrhoea and epigastric pain. He died on the third day of ingestion due to multiorgan failure. Chemical analysis of blood and viscera obtained postmortem confirmed the presence of colchicine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea which may be bloody and vomiting. 2. Holly berries contain ilex acid, which irritates the stomach and causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[kidemergencies.com]
Nausea
  • A 72-year-old female with a known breast cancer was brought to our emergency department (ED) with complaints of nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain typically begin 2 – 24 hours after ingestion and may last several days.[kidemergencies.com]
  • American Holly Berries are toxic, contain Ilicin Clinical signs Nausea, severe vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea Treatment - Ipecac, activated charcoal 14. Jerusalem Cherry 15.[slideshare.net]
  • Other symptoms may include: Burning in mouth or throat Damage to cornea of the eye Diarrhea Eye pain Hoarse voice Nausea or vomiting Swelling and blistering in the mouth or tongue Blistering and swelling in the mouth may be severe enough to prevent normal[coordinatedhealth.com]
  • Symptoms from eating parts of the plant or from the plant touching the eye include: Burning in the mouth or throat Damage to the outer clear layer (cornea) of the eye Diarrhea Eye pain Hoarse voice Nausea or vomiting Swelling and blistering in the mouth[medlineplus.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • American Holly Berries are toxic, contain Ilicin Clinical signs Nausea, severe vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea Treatment - Ipecac, activated charcoal 14. Jerusalem Cherry 15.[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain typically begin 2 – 24 hours after ingestion and may last several days.[kidemergencies.com]
  • pain, loss of consciousness, convulsions within 24 h) were recorded in 2 districts of Haiti's Northern Province.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • American Holly Berries are toxic, contain Ilicin Clinical signs Nausea, severe vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea Treatment - Ipecac, activated charcoal 14. Jerusalem Cherry 15.[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain typically begin 2 – 24 hours after ingestion and may last several days.[kidemergencies.com]
  • pain, loss of consciousness, convulsions within 24 h) were recorded in 2 districts of Haiti's Northern Province.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Epigastric Pain
  • Initially he presented with severe vomiting, diarrhoea and epigastric pain. He died on the third day of ingestion due to multiorgan failure. Chemical analysis of blood and viscera obtained postmortem confirmed the presence of colchicine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachycardia
  • These dysrhythmias include the following: Tachydysrhythmia, such as atrial tachycardia with block Junctional tachycardia Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with block Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia More than a single dysrhythmia may be present.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Poison hemlock has nicotinic effects, beginning with dry mouth and progressing to tachycardia, tremors, diaphoresis, mydriasis, seizures, and muscle paresis. Rhabdomyolysis and bradycardia may occur.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Clinical features: tachycardia, dry flushed skin, dry mucous membranes, mydriasis, blurred vision, hyperpyrexia, urinary retention, confusion, disorientation, loss of short term memory, ataxia, visual and auditory hallucinations, psychosis, death 36.[slideshare.net]
  • Nicotiana spp (tobacco) ingestion, inhalation or transdermal exposure is possible nicotinic syndrome: GI symptoms, sweating, tachycardia, hypotension, tremor, seizures Psychotropic alkaloids, e.g.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Hypotension
  • The second inhibitory phase is delayed and often heralded by hypotension, bradycardia, and dyspnea, finally leading to coma and respiratory failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complications Complications of herbal cardiac glycoside toxicity are secondary to inadequate tissue perfusion caused by dysrhythmia-induced hypotension and include the following: Hypoxic seizures Myocardial ischemia Mortality/morbidity Factors increasing[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Nicotiana spp (tobacco) ingestion, inhalation or transdermal exposure is possible nicotinic syndrome: GI symptoms, sweating, tachycardia, hypotension, tremor, seizures Psychotropic alkaloids, e.g.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • While usually fatal, if consumption of the castor bean doesn't kill you, you can look forward to symptoms like nausea, emesis, diarrhea, tachycardia, hypotension and seizures, often persisting for up to a week. 5 Water Hemlock (Cicuta) Water Hemlock grows[oddee.com]
Hypertension
  • The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Gastroenteritis Supportive care Jimsonweed Anticholinergic symptoms, hyperthermia, seizures, hallucinations Supportive care For severe hyperthermia or seizures, possibly physostigmine Licorice (not the artificially flavored licorice candy) Hypokalemia, hypertension[merckmanuals.com]
Hypertension
  • The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Gastroenteritis Supportive care Jimsonweed Anticholinergic symptoms, hyperthermia, seizures, hallucinations Supportive care For severe hyperthermia or seizures, possibly physostigmine Licorice (not the artificially flavored licorice candy) Hypokalemia, hypertension[merckmanuals.com]
Flushing
  • The person may receive: Airway and breathing support for severe mouth and throat swelling Additional eye flushing or washing Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to treat symptoms People who do not have a lot of mouth contact with the plant are[medlineplus.gov]
  • If the plant fertilizer is in your eyes or on your skin, flush thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes. If you ingested the substance, do not induce vomiting unless the poison control center tells you to.[healthline.com]
  • The person may receive: Airway and breathing support for severe mouth and throat swelling Additional eye flushing or washing Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to treat symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) People who do not have a lot of mouth contact[mountsinai.org]
  • Clinical features: tachycardia, dry flushed skin, dry mucous membranes, mydriasis, blurred vision, hyperpyrexia, urinary retention, confusion, disorientation, loss of short term memory, ataxia, visual and auditory hallucinations, psychosis, death 36.[slideshare.net]
Eczema
  • Acute nicotine poisoning associated with a traditional remedy for eczema. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85(6):500–2. CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar Dickers KJ, Bradberry SM, Rice P, Griffiths GD, Vale JA. Abrin poisoning.[link.springer.com]
  • Sophora root is used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as "Ku Shen" and is used to treat dysentery, scabies, itchy rashes such as with eczema, skin lesions, jaundice, edema, urinary dysfunction, and vaginal discharge.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Blurred Vision
  • Clinical features: tachycardia, dry flushed skin, dry mucous membranes, mydriasis, blurred vision, hyperpyrexia, urinary retention, confusion, disorientation, loss of short term memory, ataxia, visual and auditory hallucinations, psychosis, death 36.[slideshare.net]
  • Initial symptoms from an overdose would typically include dizziness, nausea, blurred vision and convulsions. At larger doses, it causes paralysis of the spinal cord, leading to almost complete loss of muscular power and eventually asphyxia.[theguardian.com]
  • These include skin rash, blurred vision, visual disturbances such as halos, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, loss of appetite, irregular or slowed heartbeat, weakness, low blood pressure, confusion, dizziness, headache, fainting, depression,[homeguides.sfgate.com]
  • One of the most toxic plants in the Western Hemisphere, consumption of Deadly Nightshade leads to delirium, hallucinations, dilated pupils, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, tachycardia, loss of balance, staggering, headache, rash, dry mouth and throat[oddee.com]
  • They include dryness in the mouth, thirst, difficulty in swallowing and speaking, blurred vision from the dilated pupils, vomiting, excessive stimulation of the heart, drowsiness, slurred speech, hallucinations, confusion, disorientation, delirium, and[thepoisongarden.co.uk]
Kidney Failure
  • ., apparent recovery , cellular destruction is occurring in the kidney and liver Stage III - 3-5 days post ingestion, liver and kidney failure, death can occur 4-7 days post ingestion Treatment - induce vomiting, transport 54.[slideshare.net]
Confusion
  • On the second hour after arrival, the patient became confused. It was observed that the chest wall movements had decreased and that the patient had difficulty breathing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Toxicity includes gastroenteritis, confusion, hyperkalemia, and arrhythmias. The serum digoxin level can confirm ingestion but is not useful as quantitative information. K levels are closely monitored. Hyperkalemia may respond only to hemodialysis .[merckmanuals.com]
  • Lily-of-the-Valley Leaves, flowers Irregular heart beat and pulse, usually accompanied by digestive upset and mental confusion. Iris Underground stems Severe-but not usually serious-digestive upset.[aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu]
  • Clinical features: tachycardia, dry flushed skin, dry mucous membranes, mydriasis, blurred vision, hyperpyrexia, urinary retention, confusion, disorientation, loss of short term memory, ataxia, visual and auditory hallucinations, psychosis, death 36.[slideshare.net]
  • These include skin rash, blurred vision, visual disturbances such as halos, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, loss of appetite, irregular or slowed heartbeat, weakness, low blood pressure, confusion, dizziness, headache, fainting, depression,[homeguides.sfgate.com]
Headache
  • […] seizures, possibly physostigmine Dieffenbachia (dumbcane) Oral mucosal damage due to Ca oxalate crystals in leaves Supportive care and demulsification (eg, with milk or ice cream) Fava beans In patients with G6PD deficiency, gastroenteritis, fever, headache[merckmanuals.com]
  • Signs and symptoms of poisoning are identical to cyanide poisoning and can include headache, dizziness, coma, seizure and poor heart function.[kidemergencies.com]
  • I felt great depression and a severe frontal headache. The pulse was still normal, but weak.”[theguardian.com]
  • Rhubarb Leaves are toxic, contain oxalic acid, heating does not destroy the toxic principle Stems are edible Clinical signs abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, muscle cramps, tetany, renal failure Treatment - Ipecac, activated charcoal, transport[slideshare.net]
  • These include skin rash, blurred vision, visual disturbances such as halos, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, loss of appetite, irregular or slowed heartbeat, weakness, low blood pressure, confusion, dizziness, headache, fainting, depression,[homeguides.sfgate.com]
Encephalopathy
  • Epidemic of fatal encephalopathy in preschool children in Burkina Faso and consumption of unripe ackee (Blighia sapida) fruit. Lancet. 1999 Feb 13. 353(9152):536-40. [Medline]. Joskow R, Belson M, Vesper H, Backer L, Rubin C.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Paresis
  • Poison hemlock has nicotinic effects, beginning with dry mouth and progressing to tachycardia, tremors, diaphoresis, mydriasis, seizures, and muscle paresis. Rhabdomyolysis and bradycardia may occur.[merckmanuals.com]

Workup

  • Instead, the workup is devoted principally to excluding other possible causes of the patient’s symptoms (see Workup). The cornerstone of treatment is GI decontamination with activated charcoal.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment: cont. If you were exposed to the smoke of burning poison ivy, oak or sumac and you believe you may have breathed in the fumes, you need to seek medical treatment immediately.[slideshare.net]
  • Colchicine poisoning is potentially life threatening because of its high toxicity and unavailability of specific antidotal treatment. It classically presents with gastroenterocolitis, and may result in multiorgan failure in fatal cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of Caladium Plant Poisoning is dependent on the amount of substance consumed, time between consumption and treatment, severity of the symptoms, as well as general health status of the patient If the individual can recover from the symptoms[dovemed.com]
  • Prognosis Prognosis is good if unripe ackee fruit ingestion is promptly recognized and appropriately managed; however, deaths do occur. Ackee poisoning has killed an estimated 5,000 people since 1886.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) For those who do not have severe oral contact with the plant, symptoms usually resolve within a few days. For those who do have severe contact with the plant, a longer recovery time may be necessary.[coordinatedhealth.com]
  • The person may receive: Airway and breathing support for severe mouth and throat swelling Additional eye flushing or washing Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to treat symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) People who do not have a lot of mouth contact[mountsinai.org]

Etiology

  • Etiology Causes include ingestion of unripe ackee fruit, canned ackee fruit, ackee fruit that has been forcibly opened or water in which unripe ackee fruit has been cooked. Epidemiology The true incidence of ackee poisoning is unknown.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Mushroom toxicity Never eat any wild mushroom Etiology - consumption of raw or cooked mushrooms/toadstools Cooking, canning or freezing WILL NOT render toxic mushrooms non toxic Clinical Syndromes - usually acute onset of signs and symptoms 53.[slideshare.net]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. mathieu.tourdjman@free.fr Abstract An outbreak investigation was conducted during February-March 2005 to determine the cause of several sudden[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology The true incidence of ackee poisoning is unknown. Ackee fruit sales are illegal in the United States, likely leading to underreporting. Cases have been reported after consumption of fruit illegally shipped or transported by travelers.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology More than 200 naturally occurring cardiac glycosides have been identified. These bind to a site on the cell membrane, producing reversible inhibition of the sodium (Na )-potassium (K )-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) pump.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Prevention Do not touch or eat any plant with which you are not familiar. Wash your hands after working in the garden or walking in the woods.[coordinatedhealth.com]
  • You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Take the plant with you to the hospital, if possible.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Hospital for Sick Children Health A-Z Search a complete list of child health articles expand_more View All Drug A-Z Search a list of articles about medications expand_more View All Learning Hubs Browse a complete list of content groups Healthy Living & Prevention[aboutkidshealth.ca]
  • Restrict access where possible or ensure a ready supply of alternative feed to prevent livestock eating toxic plants.[business.qld.gov.au]

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