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Plasmodium Vivax


Presentation

  • It can present as the primary syndrome or occur secondary to a variety of conditions such as malignancy, autoimmune diseases and infections. We present a case of a man who developed HLH secondary to Plasmodium vivax infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The authors report only the second case in literature with coinfection of plasmodium species presenting with haemoperitoneum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Interestingly, patients with serum Th1 cytokine profile present inversely proportional parasitaemia to the increase in the number of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells while patients with serum Th2 cytokine profile present directly proportional parasitaemia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] cycles and clinical presentations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although the pfcrt K76T polymorphism, a determinant of CQ resistance, was present in all samples genotyped, the pfmdr1 N86Y was absent. For P. vivax isolates, an amplification rate of 20% was found for the pvmdr1 gene.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sputum
  • Sputum cultures, urine tests for legionella antigen, and serologies for Cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and human immunodeficiency[doi.org]
Abdominal Tenderness
  • At hospital admission, abdominal tenderness with splenomegaly was present with free fluid in abdomen. Haematological investigations established the coinfection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Distractibility
  • The perceptual organization (p 0.363), freedom from distractability (p 0.180) and processing speed (p 0.132) were similar in both groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Even though the repeats have been suggested as targets distracting an immune response, this is still not clear because they are highly conserved, even between species.[frontiersin.org]
Fear
  • Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • As pain abdomen in such patients can rarely be either due to gastrointestinal haemorrhage [ 13 ] or acute pancreatitis, a meticulous clinical workup can be life saving. Conflicting Interest The authors had no conflicts of interest.[pancreas.imedpub.com]
  • A sepsis workup was performed including blood- and urine culture, and a microscopic examination of the urine sediment. Because of maternal malaria infection, malaria screening of the neonate was included.[pediatric-infectious-disease.imedpub.com]
Creatinine Increased
  • Vivax malaria severity was highly associated with abnormal creatinine increases, and nonsurvivors presented the highest values of serum creatinine. Indication of kidney dysfunction was not associated with parasitemia levels.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chlamydia
  • Sputum cultures, urine tests for legionella antigen, and serologies for Cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and human immunodeficiency[doi.org]
Coccidioides Immitis
  • Sputum cultures, urine tests for legionella antigen, and serologies for Cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and human immunodeficiency[doi.org]
Diffuse Encephalopathy
  • Cerebral malaria (CM) is a diffuse encephalopathy associated with coma and seizures commonly caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) in children with severe malaria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • SLCO1A2 and SLCO1B1 gene treatment over time interactions were associated with gametocytemia clearance rate (p FDR 0.018 and p FDR 0.024). ABCB1, ABCC4 and SLCO1B3 were not associated with treatment response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Randomized PQ treatment in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort in Papua New Guinean children permitted the study of Pv and Pf gametocyte carriage after radical cure and to investigate the contribution of Pv relapses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He was diagnosed with P. vivax malaria and, after a normal G6PD test, he started treatment with chloroquine and primaquine and was discharged.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • As compared with complicated falciparum malaria with ARDS, the prognosis is relatively better in ARDS in patients with complicated vivax malaria. [4] , [5] , [6] , [7] Gastrointestinal hemorrhage as a complication of P. vivax malaria again is extremely[atmph.org]
  • PubMed Central View Article PubMed Google Scholar Garrett-Jones C: Prognosis for interruption of malaria transmission through assessment of the mosquito's vectorial capacity. Nature. 1964, 204: 1173-1175. 10.1038/2041173a0.[doi.org]
  • Manning L, Laman M, Law I, Bona C, Aipit S, et al. (2011) Features and prognosis of severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed Plasmodium species in Papua New Guinean children. PLoS One 6: e29203.[journals.plos.org]

Etiology

  • […] clinically by fever, anemia and splenomegaly and is caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium P. vivax infections occur in both tropical and temperate zones, between 45 N and 40 S ( WHO: Malaria [Accessed 10 January 2018] ) Pathophysiology / etiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • The pursuit proved fruitless, and when Garnham in 1930 definitively failed to induce malaria in subjects infected only with gametocytes, the way was finally cleared for new ideas about the etiology of relapse.[vivaxmalaria.com]
  • Manning L, Laman M, Rosanas-Urgell A, Michon P, Aipit S, et al. (2012) Severe anemia in Papua New Guinean children from a malaria-endemic area: a case-control etiologic study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1972. View Article Google Scholar 40.[journals.plos.org]

Epidemiology

  • The implication of different incubating forms of P. vivax on the epidemiology and control of malaria is also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The implication of different incubating forms of P. vivax on the epidemiology and control of malaria is also discussed. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Article metrics loading...[doi.org]
  • * Humans Infant Infant, Newborn Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology Malaria, Falciparum/transmission* Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology Malaria, Vivax/parasitology Malaria, Vivax/transmission* Male Microsatellite Repeats Middle[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This epidemiology highlights the need to register and use primaquine for the treatment of latent-phase P. vivax malaria in Switzerland, a medicine currently neither marketed nor systematically reimbursed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. 2 Macfarlane Burnet Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia. 3 Shoklo Malaria[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Sa, PhD, National Institutes of Health 10:30 AM Networking Coffee Break Session 6: From Bench to Bedside: Pathophysiology of Severe P. vivax Malaria Co-Chairs: Marcus V.[nyas.org]
  • Lung injury in vivax malaria: pathophysiological evidence for pulmonary vascular sequestration and posttreatment alveolar-capillary inflammation. J Infect Dis 2007; 195:589-96. [PMID: 17230420] Desai DC, Gupta T, Sirsat RA, Shete M.[pancreas.imedpub.com]
  • […] characterized clinically by fever, anemia and splenomegaly and is caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium P. vivax infections occur in both tropical and temperate zones, between 45 N and 40 S ( WHO: Malaria [Accessed 10 January 2018] ) Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Recent reports have placed the host-parasite interplay in the bone marrow at the center of pathophysiology and transmissibility of the other main human parasite P falciparum by demonstrating the enrichment of late parasite stages and immature gametocytes[bloodjournal.org]

Prevention

  • China. 6 Department of Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, P. R. China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Primaquine is the only drug available for preventing relapse following a primary attack by Plasmodium vivax malaria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) is the only currently licensed antimalarial that prevents Plasmodium vivax (Pv) relapses. It also clears mature P. falciparum (Pf) gametocytes, thereby reducing post-treatment transmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While the vaccine candidate did not prevent malaria infection, it did significantly delay parasitemia in 59% of vaccinated subjects. Col.[sciencedaily.com]
  • Prevention of malaria Infection with malaria is preventable provided recommended precautions are implemented.[pulmccm.org]

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