Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Pleural Disorder

Disease Pleural


Presentation

  • Patients with anaerobic pleuropulmonary infection may present with a more insidious course and present with weight loss, fever, and chronic cough. A history of aspiration and poor oral hygiene is often evident.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
  • […] or purulent (empyema) Thoracentesis necessary to differentiate Cancer Most commonly lung cancer, breast cancer, or lymphoma but possible with any tumor metastatic to pleurae Typically causing dull, aching chest pain Pulmonary embolism Effusion present[msdmanuals.com]
  • Pleural effusion is a common presentation for many pulmonary and systemic diseases, and it is estimated that each year 1.5 million people develop a pleural effusion in the USA and 200 000–250 000 in the UK [ 1, 2 ].[err.ersjournals.com]
  • This child presented with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory distress, presumed to be c... FIG. 16.15. Pleural effusion. A: Bilateral pleural effusions in a patient with metastatic nodules scattered throughout both lungs, primary unknown.[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Comprising 20 sections, the present edition of the book has been substantially revised incorporating the latest research and achievements in the field.[books.google.com]
Pseudotumor
  • […] pleural SFT) Smooth muscle tumors of the pleura Pleural carcinomas Pleural mucoepidermoid carcinoma Pleural pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma Pleural infections Pleural endometriosis Pleuritis Pleural mesothelial hyperplasia Pleural calcified fibrous pseudotumor[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Loculated effusions, particularly those in the horizontal or oblique fissure, can be confused with a solid pulmonary mass (pseudotumor). They may change shape and size with changes in the patient’s position and amount of pleural fluid.[msdmanuals.com]
Pleural Effusion
  • Pleural Effusion Recently Answered 2 Answers A A pleural effusion occurs when the pleural fluid that lubricates the surfaces of the pleura (the lining around the organs in the chest) builds up to abnormal, excessive amounts.[sharecare.com]
  • Diagnosing a pleural effusion A chest X-ray can usually confirm a pleural effusion. However, if doctors know the reason for the pleural effusion they may not need to carry out any more tests.[medic8.com]
  • Pneumonia with large pleural effusion. This child presented with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory distress, presumed to be c... FIG. 16.15. Pleural effusion.[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Image: Pleural Effusion PLEURAL EFFUSION DIAGNOSIS There are several tests used to diagnose a pleural effusion.[medicalook.com]
Pleuritic Pain
  • Pleuritic pain can usually be managed with NSAIDs or other oral analgesics. At times, a short course of oral opioids is required.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Pneumonia may have signs and symptoms of fever, shaking chills, cough producing colored sputum and pleuritic pain.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Pulmonary embolism (tends to produce a comparatively small effusion but disproportionate dyspnoea and pleuritic pain; 80% are exudates, 20% are transudates). Rare causes: Superior vena cava obstruction (usually due to lung cancer).[patient.info]
  • The distribution of BMI, symptoms of cough, fever, pleuritic pain, and modified medical research council (MMRC) grade of dyspnea did not follow any distinct pattern in the different etiologic categories.[lungindia.com]

Workup

  • […] embolism. 4 Because many diseases affecting different organs can cause a pleural effusion, we cannot overemphasize the importance of a thorough history and physical examination to uncover clues that will help identify its cause and narrow the diagnostic workup[mdedge.com]
  • II, C: “ Two or more diagnoses that equally meet the definition for principal diagnosis : In the unusual instance when two or more diagnoses equally meet the criteria for principal diagnosis as determined by the circumstances of admission, diagnostic workup[hcpro.com]
Chest X-Ray Abnormal
  • Home » Tutorials » Chest X-ray Tutorials » Chest X-ray Abnormalities » Introduction » 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 » Conclusion Key points The pleura and pleural spaces are only visible when abnormal There should be no visible space between the visceral and[radiologymasterclass.co.uk]
X-Ray Abnormal
  • Home » Tutorials » Chest X-ray Tutorials » Chest X-ray Abnormalities » Introduction » 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 » Conclusion Key points The pleura and pleural spaces are only visible when abnormal There should be no visible space between the visceral and[radiologymasterclass.co.uk]
Pleural Effusion
  • Pleural Effusion Recently Answered 2 Answers A A pleural effusion occurs when the pleural fluid that lubricates the surfaces of the pleura (the lining around the organs in the chest) builds up to abnormal, excessive amounts.[sharecare.com]
  • Diagnosing a pleural effusion A chest X-ray can usually confirm a pleural effusion. However, if doctors know the reason for the pleural effusion they may not need to carry out any more tests.[medic8.com]
  • Pneumonia with large pleural effusion. This child presented with bacterial pneumonia and respiratory distress, presumed to be c... FIG. 16.15. Pleural effusion.[5minuteconsult.com]
  • Image: Pleural Effusion PLEURAL EFFUSION DIAGNOSIS There are several tests used to diagnose a pleural effusion.[medicalook.com]

Treatment

  • In some cases, draining the pleural effusion may be sufficient treatment but if the underlying illness cannot be treated effectively, the effusion is likely to return and therefore other treatments may be recommended.[medic8.com]
  • PLEURAL EFFUSION TREATMENT Even with treatments available, complications do sometimes arise if you suffer from a pleural effusion. If a lung is surrounded by fluid for a prolonged amount of time, that lung may collapse.[medicalook.com]
  • Further treatments, depending on the cause of the effusi on, include: Surgery Radiotherapy (using high-powered X-rays or other radioactive particles to kill cancer cells) Chemotherapy (treatment used to kill cancer cells) Injecting medication into the[hospitals.aku.edu]
  • P sallidas et al. [ 6 ] provide a state-of-the-art review of malignant pleural effusion from bench-to-bedside focusing on the pathogenesis, novel treatments and future directions.[err.ersjournals.com]
  • PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT CHARACTERIZATION PROGNOSTIC FACTORS TREATMENT GENERAL Medical and surgical treatment of parapneumonic effusions : an evidence-based guideline.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]

Prognosis

  • (Outcomes/Resolutions) The prognosis of Pleural Effusion depends upon the underlying cause If the underlying cause is detected promptly and appropriately managed, the outcome is better Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Pleural Effusion: A[dovemed.com]
  • Prognosis : depends on nature and cause of effusion, generally very guarded.[vetstream.com]
  • Prognosis In patients with pleurisy, the outlook depends on the underlying medical illness. Lung infection — People with epidemic pleurodynia or other viral cause of pleurisy have an excellent prognosis.[drugs.com]
  • In more than 50% of the cases cytology is positive and prognosis is poor.[thedoctorsdoctor.com]
  • Prognosis of Pleural Effusion Prognosis for patients with pleural effusions varies based on the underlying condition causing the retention of pleural fluids.[mesothelioma.com]

Etiology

  • The etiology is usually unknown, but heart failure, lymphoma, heart worm infection and lymphangiectasia are sometimes implicated. Timecourse Acute. Insidious and progressive.[vetstream.com]
  • Etiology is unknown for about 15% of effusions even after extensive study; many of these effusions are thought to be due to viral infection.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Incidence and etiologies of c... 511.9 Unspecified pleural effusion 510.9 Empyema without mention of fistula 511.81 Malignant pleural effusion 012.00 Tuberculous pleurisy, unspecified 511.89 Other specified forms of effusion, e...[5minuteconsult.com]
  • To treat pleural effusion appropriately, it is important to determine its etiology. However, the etiology of pleural effusion remains unclear in nearly 20% of cases. Thoracocentesis should be performed for new and unexplained pleural effusions.[dovepress.com]
  • No etiologic diagnosis could be established in 6 (12%) patients and their etiology was categorized as "undetermined."[lungindia.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological differences among pneumococcal serotypes. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Feb. 5(2):83-93. [Medline]. Byington CL, Korgenski K, Daly J, Ampofo K, Pavia A, Mason EO.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Merchant JA (1990) Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease. Environ Health Perspect 88:287-93 46.[mhlw.go.jp]
  • Epidemiology of the vasculitides. Rheum Dis Clin North Am, 27 (2001), pp. 729-749 [147] C. Salvarani, F. Cantini, L. Boiardi, G.G. Hunder. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. N Engl J Med, 347 (2002), pp. 261-271 [148] T.S. Larson, S.[archbronconeumol.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology Fluid accumulation in pleural space lung lobes unable to expand dyspnea. True transudates associated with hypoproteinemia.[vetstream.com]
  • Chest 121:2079–2080 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Miserocchi G (1997) Physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid turnover.[link.springer.com]
  • This article reviews the pathophysiology of MPE along with available investigations and management strategies for these patients.[academic.oup.com]
  • Pathophysiology of malignant pleural effusion7 The tumours most commonly associated with pleural effusion are lung, breast, lymphoma and tumours of the GI tract. Tumour cells migrate to the pleura by either haematogenous or lymphatic spread.[rcemlearning.co.uk]
  • Image Credit: Wikipedia Pathophysiology and Causes of Pleural Effusion The normal pleural space contains approximately 10 mL of fluid, representing the balance between Hydrostatic and oncotic forces in the visceral and parietal pleural vessels Extensive[medcaretips.com]

Prevention

  • If congestive heart failure is the cause, diuretics may be used to prevent fluid buildup. Other medicines also may be used to treat heart failure.[sharecare.com]
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) leads or sponsors many studies aimed at preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders.[nhlbi.nih.gov]
  • Treatment can be directed in three ways: removing the fluid from the pleural cavity, preventing further accumulation of fluid, or addressing the original cause of the build-up.[medicalook.com]
  • […] treatments, depending on the cause of the effusi on, include: Surgery Radiotherapy (using high-powered X-rays or other radioactive particles to kill cancer cells) Chemotherapy (treatment used to kill cancer cells) Injecting medication into the chest to prevent[hospitals.aku.edu]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!