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Pneumococcal Infection


Presentation

  • The first patient presented with pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema and the second patient presented with pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Chills
  • Infection of the blood stream (bacteraemia and sepsis) can present with joint pain and chills. It may also present along with infection at other site, such as pneumonia and meningitis.[chp.gov.hk]
  • Pneumococcal bacteremia symptoms are similar to these and may include joint pains and chills, as well. Vaccine recommendations Two vaccines have been formulated to prevent pneumococcal infection.[sheknows.com]
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia may include: fever chills and shaking chest pain when breathing in or out shortness of breath cough blood-stained or ‘rusty’ sputum (phlegm) drowsiness (excessive sleepiness) or confusion are common[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
Rigor
  • However, MBL deficiency has not been rigorously defined, and associations with sepsis outcomes have not been subjected to multivariable analysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We apply rigorous science to build knowledge and support for the value of vaccines.[jhsph.edu]
  • Sometimes preceded by a viral illness, there is acute onset of high fever, rigors, productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, malaise, and fatigue. Patients typically appear ill and may appear anxious.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Malaise
  • People with pneumococcal meningitis have fever, headache, and a general feeling of illness (malaise).[merckmanuals.com]
  • A bacterium, streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) causes pneumococcal pneumonia, the symptoms of which include high fever, cough and shortness of breath; bacteremia, an infection of the blood stream that causes fever and malaise; and pneumococcal meningitis[sheknows.com]
  • Most patients with pneumococcal meningitis present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, including fever, irritability, emesis, lethargy, anorexia, and malaise.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Increased Susceptibility to Infections
  • Patients with normal immunoglobulin levels may have an impaired response to immunization with pneumococcal vaccine and increased susceptibility to infection with encapsulated organisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • Cover your nose and mouth with tissue paper when sneezing or coughing. Dispose the soiled tissues into a lidded rubbish bin, then wash hands thoroughly.[chp.gov.hk]
  • People have fever, chills, a general feeling of illness (malaise), shortness of breath, and a cough. The cough brings up sputum that becomes rust-colored. Commonly, sharp, stabbing chest pains occur on one side.[merckmanuals.com]
  • A 1-year-5-months-old female who had cough, rhinorrhea and prolonged fever for 19 days was admitted to the intensive care unit due to exertional dyspnea. She was intubated promptly in virtue of hypotension and cyanosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] heartbeat fever feeling generally unwell sweating and shivering loss of appetite chest pain – which gets worse when breathing or coughing Less common symptoms include: coughing up blood (haemoptysis) headaches fatigue nausea or vomiting wheezing joint[nhs.uk]
Purpura
  • We describe five cases of HIV-infected patients who had unusual manifestations of pneumococcal infection, which include recurrent exudative pleural effusion, pyopneumothorax, purpura fulminans, mediastinitis with chest wall abscess, and multiple brain[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • […] following: Echocardiography Middle-ear fluid aspiration Pleural fluid aspiration Chest tube thoracostomy or catheter placement Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) or pleural decortication Joint fluid aspiration Biopsy of bone, soft tissue, or muscle See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • “Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia” was defined as 1 blood culture positive for S. pneumoniae for a patient with a new pulmonary infiltrate documented by chest radiography.[doi.org]
Immunoglobulin A Decreased
  • Immunological investigations showed a reduction in immunoglobulins, a decrease in in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis and a disorder of immunoregulatory T-cells, but immunological changes could not be readily explained by splenectomy alone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cytopenia
  • A total of 76 splenectomized patients (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL 26, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL 19, immune-mediated cytopenias 28, and others 3) with a median age of 52 years (range 18-82 years) were included.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • In Gram-positive bacteria, such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae ( 12, 13 ), Actinomyces spp. ( 14 ), and recently group A streptococci (GAS) and group B streptococci (GBS) ( 15, 16 ), pili-like surface structures have been identified by electron microscopy[doi.org]
Blood Culture Positive
  • These assays were used to detect capsular polysaccharide in urine from 263 adult patients with proven (blood culture-positive) invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia of unknown etiology and from patients with positive blood cultures yielding bacteria[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • “Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia” was defined as 1 blood culture positive for S. pneumoniae for a patient with a new pulmonary infiltrate documented by chest radiography.[doi.org]
Ancylostoma Duodenale
  • The non-vaccinated children were at risk of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichura, Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, bancroftian microfilaria, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Giadia lamblia, Entaemeba histolytica[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The treatment did not cause hematological toxicity, as demonstrated by platelet counts. This feasibility study establishes that RIT can be applied to the treatment of bacterial infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Contacts do not require antibiotic treatment or vaccination. Treatment: Antibiotics as recommended by doctor – refer to doctor.[ww2.health.wa.gov.au]

Prognosis

  • In this patient population, shock—and, to a lesser degree, age—acted as negative confounders of the association between inclusion of a macrolide as part of the empirical antibiotic regimen and a better prognosis.[doi.org]
  • Prognosis Pneumococcal conjunctivitis, otitis media, and sinusitis in developed countries where appropriate antibiotics are available usually carry an excellent prognosis; potential complications are listed above (see Complications).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] with functional or anatomic asplenia Those with sickle cell disease Residents of long-term care facilities Smokers Aborigines, Alaskan natives, and certain American Indian populations The elderly, even those without other disease, tend to have a poor prognosis[merckmanuals.com]
  • Conclusions: Invasive pneumococcal infection has poor prognosis and penicillin-resistant strains have become increasingly common.[jlponline.org]

Etiology

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon etiological pathogen for inducing Hemolytic uremic syndrome, and Streptococcus pneumoniae associated Hemolytic uremic syndrome is also termed as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. to report two pediatric cases[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology and ecology, Arch Intern Med, 1962 , vol. 110 (pg. 847 - 55 ) 12 Severe community-acquired pneumonia: epidemiology and prognostic factors, Am Rev Respir Dis, 1991 , vol. 144 (pg. 312 - 9 ) 13 Severe community-acquired pneumonia: etiology, prognosis[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • […] prevention & control* Pneumococcal Infections/transmission Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage* Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology United States/epidemiology Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology Substances[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Overall health care utilization for otitis media has decreased, as has the incidence of recurrent otitis media in some populations and studies. [7, 23, 24, 25] Pathophysiology Capsule The capsule is composed of polysaccharides that cover the cell wall[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of PPV in preventing disease or death in adults. Adverse events were not assessed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 11th ed. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[oxfordbibliographies.com]

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