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Poison

Toxic Chemical


Presentation

  • It usually presents after exposure to a higher concentration of uroshiol on Toxicodendron plants. Patients present with black-spot deposits on the epidermis with underlying poison ivy dermatitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of intravenous poison hemlock injection encountered in the emergency department. We describe a 30-year-old male who presented to the emergency department after a brief cardiac arrest after injecting poison hemlock.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the present clinical significance, if any, of these factors remains unproven.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gastric Lavage
  • The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: As decontamination trends have evolved, gastric lavage (GL) has become a rare procedure. The current information regarding use, outcomes, and complications of GL could help refine indications for this invasive procedure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Gastric lavage should not be employed routinely, if ever, in the management of poisoned patients. In experimental studies, the amount of marker removed by gastric lavage was highly variable and diminished with time.[doi.org]
  • Gastric decontamination can involve activated charcoal, gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation, or nasogastric aspiration. Routine use of emetics (syrup of Ipecac), cathartics or laxatives are no longer recommended.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • This technique, which is known as gastric lavage, involves introducing 20-30 mL of tap water or 9% saline solution into the patient's digestive tract and removing the stomach contents with a siphon or syringe.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Malaise
  • […] stomach bug If you have the stomach bug, also known as viral gastroenteritis, you may have one or more of the following symptoms: diarrhea stomach or intestinal cramps nausea vomiting fever weight loss joint aches muscle aches thirst headache general malaise[healthline.com]
Localized Edema
  • Common clinical effects included pain, local edema, and erythema, except in Arizona and Nevada where severe systemic symptoms were more common.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachypnea
  • For young children with unintentional ingestions, a reasonable approach to home management would include at least one follow-up for signs and symptoms of possible toxicity including mental status changes, polyuria, or tachypnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Periodontitis
  • INTRODUCTION: Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Red Eye
  • Primary symptoms across all insect repellent exposures included ocular irritation/pain, vomiting, red eye/conjunctivitis, and oral irritation. Treatment primarily included dilution/irrigation/wash.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common reported symptoms were ocular irritation/pain (65%), dermal irritation/pain (30%), and red eye (20%). Decontamination by dilution/irrigation/wash was reported in 95% of the patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Children 5 years have more drowsiness/lethargy, ataxia, and red eye/conjunctivitis. No deaths were reported. The most common therapies administered were intravenous fluids (85, 20%), dilute/irrigate/wash (48, 11 %), and benzodiazepines (47, 11%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Lesion
  • Emphysema and honeycombing were more prevalent among individuals with skin lesions, compared to individuals without skin lesions. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between the presence of emphysema and skin lesions (p   0.008).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the milder cases, their itch subsided in a few hours and skin lesions were healed in about two days after one treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Polyuria
  • For young children with unintentional ingestions, a reasonable approach to home management would include at least one follow-up for signs and symptoms of possible toxicity including mental status changes, polyuria, or tachypnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Motor Disturbances
  • All patients had sensory disturbances, and two of them had motor disturbances affecting the respiratory muscles and leading to the death of a 73-year-old man in Cuba.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Choreoathetoid Movements
  • While treatments have not been empirically determined, sedation with benzodiazepines, aggressive cooling for hyperthermic patients, and use of small doses of antipsychotics for choreoathetoid movements not controlled with benzodiazepines are not likely[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • In the severe case the itch subsided in about two days and most of the skin lesions dried up in four days after the first treatment and were healed almost completely after three sessions of acupuncture treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Notably, there was wide variation in terms of recommended treatments; further study is needed to determine the optimal treatment method and to standardize poison center recommendations for treating patients with cyanoacrylate exposures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two other victims developed ventricular tachycardia and respiratory paralysis but completely recovered with the treatment advice provided by the poison center.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • It has a good prognosis with supportive management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • What is the prognosis of a poison ivy, oak, or sumac rash? In general, the prognosis is excellent.[medicinenet.com]
  • Poisoning Prognosis The key to a good outcome is rapid recognition that a poisoning has occurred and rapid transport to a qualified medical facility when indicated. When medical care (and use of the U.S.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • The prognosis for strychnine poisoning is good if the patient can be supported over the first 6 to 12 hours.[inchem.org]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 Department of State Health Services, Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance Unit, Austin, TX, USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the epidemiology of reported ADRs to 13-Aban drug and poison information center (DPIC) and to discuss the burden of hospitalization caused by these ADRs from commonly implicated therapeutic groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Understanding the context of baclofen's widespread use for alcohol use disorder, a recent evaluation of the epidemiology, morbidity and mortality of baclofen self-poisoning episodes is necessary.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of dietary supplement exposures in the USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: An understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, treatment, and management of this rare phenomenon is important for the nurse practitioner (NP) to be able to make an accurate diagnosis and initiate appropriate[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Analysis of call data was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's EpiInfo version 7.0.9.7.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Theauthor discusses two open studies and anecdotalexperience with administration of homeopathicpoison ivy in the prevention of acute allergic contactdermatitis related to poison ivy exposure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We are collecting this information to improve your future experiences and to better provide for your poisoning prevention education needs. There are 10 questions, which should take less than 5 minutes to complete.[poisons.co.nz]

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