Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder of the kidney.
For patients of this condition, abdominal pain and pain in the sides is the first symptom that is noticed . The pain arises as a result of hypernephroma, renal colic, nephrolithiasis, cyst enlargement and internal bleeding.
Other common presentations for this disease includes:
The procedure of choice in dealing with cases of ADPKD is ultrasonography . It is also very important when screening the family member of patients. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging as well as magnetic resonance angiography can also be useful in selected cases. There are other important diagnostic studies to be performed. These include:
Treatment of this condition is focused on the following :
Prognosis in patients with ADPKD is complicated as it covers a wide spectrum . Renal failure has been reported in children and on the other hand, individuals with ADPKD may also live a normal lifespan without ever knowing that they have this disorder.
In typical cases however, ADPKD brings about progressive renal dysfunction which often results in grossly enlarged kidneys and kidney failure when patients are in their 40s and 60s. The size of the polycystic kidneys and the level of glomerular infiltration share an inverse association.
According to an early study, around 70% if patients with ADPKD will develop renal insufficiency if they are able to survive to 65 years of age.
ADPKD is a hereditary disorder and as the name implies, the pattern of inheritance is autosomal-dominant . Since the disorder occurs equally in both males and females, every offspring has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation responsible for it and thus the disease.
ADPKD is a genetically heterogeneous condition which naturally involves at least 2 genes. The PKD1 is found on 16p13.3 and is responsible for most ADPKD cases. PKD2 is found on 4q21-q22 and accounts for only 15% of ADPKD cases.
Approximately, 85-90% of patients with ADPKD have ADPKD1 and majority of the remaining patients have ADPKD2.
The condition is slightly more severe in males than in females but this difference is not significant statistically. The symptoms of the disorder often increase with age but children very rarely present with renal failure as a result of ADPKD.
Polycystic kidney disease can only be prevented at conception when parents with the disorder discusses with a genetic counsellor to work out the risk of passing on the disease to an offspring .
However, adults with the condition can take preventive measures to prevent complications that are common with this disease. One of the main ways to achieve this is by managing the blood pressure. To keep the blood pressure in check - below are some important pointers.
Polycystic kidney disease (PCKD or PKD) is a cystic disorder of the kidney . The disease is genetic.
There are two main types of PKD. The autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which is most popular and covered in this piece, and the rare autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).
A common feature of PKD is the presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys. However some cases present with observable disease in only one kidney and majority of cases progress to bilateral disease well into adulthood . The kidneys are enlarged in this condition because the cysts are numerous and fluid filled. Apart from the kidneys which are the primary targets, the disease can also damage the liver, pancreas and in very rare cases, the heart and brain. The two major forms of polycystic kidney diseases are distinguished by their inheritance patterns.
Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition where clusters of cysts occur in the kidney. Cysts are round sacs that contain water-like fluid. The sacs are not cancerous and can vary in size as they accumulate more fluid. They can also grow very large.
Even though the kidneys are affected most severely, polycystic kidney disease can make cysts develop in other areas of the body. The disease is known for its ability to bring about different types of complications.
Polycystic kidney disease varies greatly in its severity and majority of the complications can be prevented. Lifestyle changes as well as medical treatments can easily help in the reduction of damage to the kidneys as a result of complications.