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Prehypertension


Presentation

  • The data on baseline characteristics of 84 subjects studied is presented in [ Table/Fig-2 ]. Continuous variables are presented as mean SD. Categorical values are presented as whole number and in percentage in parenthesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, it is asserted that lifestyle modification should be pursued over pharmacological intervention unless a secondary disease is present (eg, type 2 diabetes mellitus or kidney disease).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Materials and methods The present study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and associated Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha (M.S.) from October 2006 to October 2008.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review will present updated data on prehypertension in children and adolescents to increase awareness of health-care providers to the seriousness of this condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Limitations Present study is with certain limitations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Coronary Atherosclerosis
  • Role of prehypertension in the development of coronary atherosclerosis in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2004; 14 (2):57–62. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 18. Toikka JO, Laine H, Ahotupa M. et al.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Effects of normal, pre-hypertensive, and hypertensive blood pressure levels on progression of coronary atherosclerosis". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 48 (4): 833–8. doi : 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.05.045. PMID 16904557.[en.wikipedia.org]
Falling
  • In most developing countries and in the urban areas of many countries, one in five to one in three adults fall in the category of prehypertension.[secardiologia.es]
  • Prognosis [ edit ] The extent to which prehypertension constitutes a serious health concern remains controversial. [10] Several long-term studies have suggested no significant increase in all-cause mortality over long periods of time for individuals falling[en.wikipedia.org]
Underweight
  • The students were classified as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese as per the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) Classification for BMI in Asian adults.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Disability
  • Exclusion criteria The subjects were excluded from the study if they had 1 Hypertension. 2 Cardiopulmonary disease and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). 3 Using cardioactive drugs. 4 Any physical disability which precluded tread mill testing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Diastolic Hypertension
  • Treatment and blood pressure control in isolated systolic hypertension vs diastolic hypertension in primary care. J Hum Hypertens. 2003; 17 (10):681–7. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 15.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Withdrawn
  • […] pharmacological agents can prevent hypertension has been looked at in one study. 12 The use of an angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan did reduce the risk of developing hypertension compared to placebo but this reduction was very minimal once the drug was withdrawn[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Kidney Failure
  • The threshold is lower in patients with diabetes, chronic kidney failure, or cardiovascular disease. [8] The target blood pressure for these conditions is currently less than 120/80 mm Hg.[en.wikipedia.org]
Neglect
  • Therefore it could be speculated that systolic prehypertensive heart works more than normal heart and if neglected may eventually lead to heart failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dizziness
  • Only extremely elevated blood pressure ( malignant hypertension ) can, in rare cases, cause headaches, visual changes, fatigue, or dizziness, but these are nonspecific symptoms which can occur with many other conditions.[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • As such, currently pharmacological treatment is not the answer nor is it feasible. Besides the lack of evidence, the cost of treatment, the biochemical changes and potential adverse events may outweigh the benefits of treatment of prehypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hypertension surveillance and treatment to achieve target BP levels continue to be important issues in primary care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Conference will aim to deal with all aspects related to early diagnosis, including innovative technologies and treatments as well as discussion of target organ damage, cardiac, renal, neurological and peripheral arteries.[secardiologia.es]
  • Also, the development of studies to replace pharmacological therapy in those on current treatment given that lifestyle modification can be used as a prevention/treatment for several other factors contributing to prehypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The presence of multiple risk factors changes the prognosis of the patients and should affect our therapeutic approach- an area with insufficient information and guidelines.[secardiologia.es]
  • Prognosis [ edit ] The extent to which prehypertension constitutes a serious health concern remains controversial. [10] Several long-term studies have suggested no significant increase in all-cause mortality over long periods of time for individuals falling[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Prehypertension: epidemiology, consequences and treatment. Nature Reviews Nephrology. 2010; 6 (1):21–30. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA 2000;283(15):2008–12. [ PubMed ] 57. Juni P, Altman DG, Egger M.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Prehypertension is defined as systolic BP (SBP) of 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 80-89 mmHg. 1, 2 This is a change from the definition in JNC-6 3 for the reasons outlined above.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 1.7 times more likely to have heart disease than a person with normal blood pressure. [17] A meta-analysis concluded that prehypertension increases the risk of stroke, and that even low-range prehypertension significantly increases stroke risk. [18] Epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Hypertension: epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. In: Hurst's The Heart 11th edn, vol 2, chapter 61, p. 1532. 7. Chaitman BR. Exercise stress testing. In: Braunwalds Heart Disease 7th edn, pp. 153–72. 8.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Hypertension: epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. In: Hurst's The Heart 11th edn, vol 2, chapter 61, p. 1532. 7. Chaitman BR. Exercise stress testing. In: Braunwalds Heart Disease 7th edn, pp. 153–72. 8.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • TOHP 2-The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157 (6):657–667. [No authors listed] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 56.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The PHARAO study: Prevention of hypertension with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in patients with high-normal blood pressure: A prospective, randomized, controlled prevention trial of the German Hypertension League.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Understanding the risk of borderline conditions in the metabolic syndrome will enable us to understand the nature of end organ damage and will create a possibility of better prevention of this continuous process.[secardiologia.es]
  • Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003; 42 (6):1206–52. Epub 2003 Dec 1. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 7.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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