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Profound Mental Retardation

IQ Below 20


Presentation

  • A case report of a 33-year-old woman with atypical bipolar disorder, autistic disorder, profound mental retardation and a chromosomal anomaly is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Poor Feeding
  • The presence or absence of seizures and of cerebral palsy does not generally add much additional predictive power. 6 The best single predictor of early death is reduced mobility, 3 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 12 , 16 , 20 followed by poor feeding ability in children[nejm.org]
Painter
  • Neonatal seizures are usually associated with central nervous system abnormalities as well as increased risk of mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy (Painter & Gaus, 1991).[nap.edu]
Malingering
  • Progressive cerebellocerebral atrophy: a new syndrome with microcephaly, mental retardation, and spastic quadriplegia B Ben-Zeev 1 , C Hoffman 2 , D Lev 3 , N Watemberg 3 , G Malinger 4 , N Brand 1 , T Lerman-Sagie 3 1 Paediatric Neurology Unit, Sheba[jmg.bmj.com]
Aspiration
  • […] with mental retardation and were scheduled for community placement Serious medical problems in decreasing frequency were constipation (96%), seizure disorder (70%), poor dental hygiene (67%), cerebral palsy (62%), scoliosis (61%), contractions (41%), aspiration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Feeding by means of nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes was provided for patients who were unable to swallow or who frequently aspirated food.[nejm.org]
  • "Young people with intellectual disabilities attending mainstream and segregated schooling: perceived stigma, social comparison and future aspirations". J Intellect Disabil Res. 50 (Pt 6): 432–44. doi : 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00789.x.[en.wikipedia.org]
Gagging
  • Bought it as a gag gift and it is brilliant for that. Was hoping he would read it in flight and have people ask questions. This was purchased with goats in trees 2013 calender. If you need to know how to operate a light switch, buy this book![amazon.co.uk]
  • […] the more likely it was that death would be due to respiratory infections. 13 , 16 Finally, Eyman et al. found that "severe deficits of the central nervous system are usually associated with (1) swallowing difficulties; (2) disturbances in coughing and gagging[nejm.org]
Dysphagia
  • […] for community placement Serious medical problems in decreasing frequency were constipation (96%), seizure disorder (70%), poor dental hygiene (67%), cerebral palsy (62%), scoliosis (61%), contractions (41%), aspiration (44%), skin lesions (40%), and dysphagia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Lesion
  • lesions (40%), and dysphagia (22%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The skin lesions include angiofibromas in the form of macules on the cheeks (adenoma sebaceum), with a butterfly-like distribution, especially after puberty. Café au lait spots or nonpigmented ash leaf–shaped areas are also found.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Small Hand
  • Two profoundly mentally retarded, unrelated males are reported with an unidentified multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome, including early balding, patella luxations, small hands and feet, and hypogonadism, similar to a previous publication[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Long Arm
  • A child with terminal deletion of the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq--) presented with marked livedo reticularis, snub nose, microcephaly, short stature, and other dysmorphic features. He was profoundly mentally retarded.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Suggestibility
  • Data suggesting that lamotrigine may decrease glutamate release encouraged an empirical trial of lamotrigine for treatment of SIB.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Stereotyped Behavior
  • Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Autistic disorder - communication _ Delayed or total lack of spoken language _ Impaired initiation or sustained conversation _ Repetitive use of language _ Often thought to be hearing impaired prior to diagnosis Autistic disorder - stereotyped behavior[umsl.edu]
  • Among individuals with profound retardation, impaired adaptive behaviors, excitability, explosiveness, hyperactivity, agitation and pacing, irritability and aggression, stereotypic behaviors and self-injurious behaviors generate psychiatric referrals[thenadd.org]
  • Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) shares many characteristics with autism, including marked impairment of communication, social interaction, and stereotypic behaviors.[nap.edu]
Unable to Walk
  • Those who were totally unable to walk were compared with those with at least some ability to walk. Mobility . Subjects were designated as immobile if they lacked the ability to crawl, creep, or "scoot" (propel themselves on the stomach).[nejm.org]
  • About 78 percent of Southbury's residents are severely retarded, with one-third unable to walk. The average age is 48. While some can talk and move around independently, others cannot carry out the most basic human functions by themselves.[nytimes.com]
Unable to Walk
  • Those who were totally unable to walk were compared with those with at least some ability to walk. Mobility . Subjects were designated as immobile if they lacked the ability to crawl, creep, or "scoot" (propel themselves on the stomach).[nejm.org]
  • About 78 percent of Southbury's residents are severely retarded, with one-third unable to walk. The average age is 48. While some can talk and move around independently, others cannot carry out the most basic human functions by themselves.[nytimes.com]

Workup

Decreased Vital Capacity
  • The latter problem is associated with decreased vital capacity of the lung.[nejm.org]

Treatment

  • Data suggesting that lamotrigine may decrease glutamate release encouraged an empirical trial of lamotrigine for treatment of SIB.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Multidimensional assessment procedure was used to evaluate effects of the TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children) program principles and strategies (i.g. individualization, structured learning, environmental[moh-it.pure.elsevier.com]

Prognosis

  • Our patient illustrates the need for study of several tissues in patients with complex aneuploidy syndromes or atypical manifestations of a given syndrome (such as prolonged survival), as well as the need for caution in counseling families about prognosis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • . _ VEP (only occasionally needed) _ Have realistic expectations, but give the special needs patients full consideration Clinical decisions for special populations _ Strabismus prognosis is generally poor _ Vision therapy can be useful and effective in[umsl.edu]
  • This includes whatever statements and treatment notes that may have been obtained from your treating physician (a doctor who has a history of treating your condition and is, therefore, qualified to comment as to your condition and prognosis).[ssdrc.com]
  • Prognosis Individuals with mild to moderate mental retardation are frequently able to achieve some self-sufficiency and to lead happy and fulfilling lives.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • .  Diagnosis of the child should be fully explained to them, and also the prognosis.  Principles of management should be explained in detail. . 40. Parental feelings and the home situation should also be discussed.[slideshare.net]

Etiology

  • Abstract Although profound mental retardation is generally associated with various organic etiologies that result in substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits, little is known about specific subgroups of persons with profound mental retardation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] undergraduate students (physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, social work, psychology, nursing, vocational counseling, therapeutic recreation, hospital administration), as well as practitioners, about the most current information on the etiology[books.google.com]
  • Etiology of the Mental Handicap and Incidence of Urinary Leakage Table-3 shows the incidences of urinary symptoms at 7 to 10 years old and the etiology of their mental problem.[scielo.br]
  • Etiology A number of environmental, genetic or multiple factors can cause mental retardation.[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY ……. About 3% of the world population is estimated to be mentally retarded. •In India, 5 out of 1000 children are mentally retarded (The Indian Express ). •Mental retardation is more common in boys than girls.[slideshare.net]
  • Murphy, CC; Boyle, C; Schendel, D; Decoufle, P and Yeargen-Allsop, M (1998)“ Epidemiology of Mental Retardation in Children” Men Retard and Devel Dis: Res Rev 4(1) p6-13 Neppe, VM and Tucker, GY1992) “ Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy” In Yudovsky[thenadd.org]
  • Epidemiology of mental retardation - a Swedish survey. Brain Dev. 1983;5:441-449. Jones KL. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, ed 4. New York, NY:Saunders;1988. Pary RJ, Silka VR, Blaha SJ. Mental retardation.[pipatl.org]
  • ., hospital patients, epidemiological samples, state systems) and the methods used to measure psychopathology (e.g., behavioral checklists, psychiatric interviews).[nap.edu]
  • Use of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines in people with intellectual disability requires monitoring and vigilance as side effects occur commonly and are often misdiagnosed as behavioral and psychiatric problems. [34] Epidemiology Intellectual[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Animal models of SIB suggest that the glutamate neurotransmitter systems, involved in the generation of epileptic seizures, may also have a role in the pathophysiology of SIB.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Such reactions result from the insecurity of people whose disabilities prevent them from adjusting to perceived threats.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Newborn screening and immediate treatment for PKU and hyperthyroidism can usually catch these disorders early enough to prevent retardation. Good prenatal care can also help prevent retardation.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • This server has encountered an internal error which prevents it from fulfilling your request. The most likely cause is a misconfiguration. Please ask the administrator to look for messages in the server's error log.[leginfo.ca.gov]
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION Early treatment of correctable disorders Early recognition of presence of mental retardation 31. TERTIARY PREVENTION Treatment of psychological and behavioral problems.[slideshare.net]
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can also be prevented: pregnant women should not drink alcohol.[cdc.gov]

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