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  • The present case report illustrates the hormonal sensitivity of adenomyosis. Administration of an estrogen-progestin combination for what was felt to be symptomatic endometriosis resulted in exacerbation of symptoms and growth of adenomyomas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe two elderly men with preexisting coronary heart disease (CHD) and prostatic carcinoma who presented with intractable anemia due to radiation-induced rectal telangiectases and bleeding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of unilateral ureteral obstruction owing to extensive pelvic endometriosis is presented. There was complete resolution of ureteral obstruction following treatment with synthetic progestin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 58-year-old woman presented with pelvic, para-aortic masses and two isolated nodules in the right lung 6 years after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for uterine leiomyoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here is reported the case of a 20 years old woman with Crohn's disease presenting with two years amenorrhea and FSH and LH levels of 255 mIU/ml and 182 mIU/ml respectively, who received 10 months corticosteroid treatment followed by 7 years of estro-progestin[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The studies using these cell lines indicated that cAMP concentrations were decreased specifically by the mPR ligands 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, diethylstilbestrol and progesterone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Using HEK293T cells expressing medaka mPRs, forskolin-elevated intracellular cAMP levels were found to be reduced on treatment of the cells with ligand 17α, 20ß-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), but only in the cells expressing mPRα.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced downregulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of serum-starved GT1–7 cells with allopregnanolone for 15 min mimicked the inhibitory effects of progesterone on cAMP levels, significantly decreasing cAMP production at low concentrations of 20 n m and 100 n m (fig. 1 b).[doi.org]
  • Calcium-induced acrosomal exocytosis requires cAMP acting through a protein kinase A-independent, Epac-mediated pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281 8656-8666 93 Luconi M, Krausz C, Barni T, Vannelli G B, Forti G, Baldi E.[doi.org]
  • Occasionally a female neonate will be so genitally virilized that she is given a male identity at birth and raised as a boy.[isna.org]
  • A secondary outcome was the number of induced abortions completed without the need for manual vacuum aspiration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It appeared that Julian had been scooped by Robinson along with his aspirations to put behind him past adversities. Even more disturbing, was all the properties for Robinson's d,l -eserethole compound were different than Julian findings.[web.archive.org]
Pelvic Girdle Pain
  • For example, they may treat acne, polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, perimenopause and hirsutism, a condition involving growth of facial hair.[livestrong.com]
  • Muti P, Stanulla M, Micheli A et al (2000) Markers of insulin resistance and sex steroid hormone activity in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of abdominal adiposity, sebum production, and hirsutism (Italy).[doi.org]
  • […] been observed in patients receiving estrogen-progestin combination drugs: rise in blood pressure in susceptible individual, premenstrual syndrome, changes in libido, changes in appetite, cystitis-like syndrome, headache, nervousness, fatigue, backache, hirsutism[drugs.com]
  • […] with ethinyl estradiol: Ortho-Cyclen, Ortho Tri-Cyclen) Pregnanes Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) — — Some of the progestins derived from 19-nortestosterone are considered to be strongly androgenic and capable of producing side effects such as hirsutism[aafp.org]
Acne Vulgaris
  • The duration of response to norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Int J Fertil Womens Med 1998;43:286-290. 9. Thorneycroft IH, Stanczyk FZ, Bradshaw KD, Ballagh SA, Nichols M, Weber ME.[intramed.net]
Sleep Disturbance
  • OMP effectively treats vasomotor symptoms and sleep disturbances, and could safely be used alone for symptomatic menopause.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • 2007;31:988 ) It has been postulated that 6 months is a prudent period for conservative treatment and followup sampling After 6 months, the likelihood of regression or resolution is less, and definitive management (hysterectomy) is indicated Diagnostic workup[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • When a fertility workup is suggested, there are two main sex hormones an overseeing medical provider will look test: estrogen and progesterone.[resolve.org]
Increased Bone Density
  • The FTC staff is not aware of any competent and reliable scientific evidence to support claims that natural progesterone products are safe, or that they are effective in preventing osteoporosis, increasing bone density, or preventing, treating, or curing[ftc.gov]


  • A molecular signature of treatment failure is proposed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Baseline data (day 1-90 before treatment) were compared with first and second treatment period (treatment days 1-90 and days 91-180). Quality of life was evaluated using MIDAS questionnaires.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • : CD133 populations decreased after treatment with MPA in an in vitro model and in patients responding to treatment with progestins.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Long-term adherence to treatment is pivotal to ensure an effective clinical management. In this optic, one of the cornerstone of endometriosis medical treatment is represented by progestins.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • P4 decreases breast cell proliferation and improves prognosis through P4 receptor alteration of estrogen receptor α genetic effects; OMP with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE)/estrogen (E)/E2 does not increase breast cancer in two prospective cohorts,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Loa Kalledsøe, Lars Ove Dragsted, Louise Hansen, Cecilie Kyrø, Henning Grønbæk, Anne Tjønneland and Anja Olsen, The insulin-like growth factor family and breast cancer prognosis: A prospective cohort study among postmenopausal women in Denmark, Growth[doi.org]
  • In the human breast, AREG is overexpressed in most ERα-positive tumors, and expression of EGFR is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to hormone therapy [ 42 ].[doi.org]


  • The exact etiology of irregular bleeding associated with progestin-containing contraceptives is not completely understood, yet several mechanisms have been suggested.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Progestins (P4 and related steroids) are also implicated in breast cancer etiology. Hormone replacement therapy containing both estrogen and progestins increases breast cancer incidence while estrogen hormone therapy lowers breast cancer risk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Willett WC (2004) Towards an integrated model for breast cancer etiology: the lifelong interplay of genes, lifestyle, and hormones.[doi.org]
  • PubMed View Article Google Scholar Leker RR, Shohami E: Cerebral ischemia and trauma – different etiologies yet similar mechanisms: neuroprotective opportunities.[dx.doi.org]


  • Search terms included epidemiologic studies progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Adami H-O, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D (2008) Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology, vol 2. Oxford University Press, New York CrossRef Google Scholar 6.[link.springer.com]
  • Weiss NS, Rossing MA (1996) Healthy screenee bias in epidemiologic studies of cancer incidence. Epidemiology 7:319–322 PubMed Google Scholar 19. Santen RJ (2003) Risk of breast cancer with progestins: critical assessment of current data.[doi.org]
  • Epidemiology of the contraceptive pill and venous thromboembolism. Thromb Res 2011;127(suppl 3):S30-S34. Conard J et al: Progestogen-only contraception in women at high risk of venous thromboembolism. Contraception 2004;70:437-441.[patientblog.clotconnect.org]
  • Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet 1996;347:1713-1727. 50.[intramed.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Coverage of pathophysiology and interventions for the pregnant woman, fetus, and newborn for selected abnormal events provides a solid understanding of physiologic adaptations and developmental physiology relating to major body systems and metabolic processes[books.google.com]
  • Abstract Increasing evidence has demonstrated striking sex differences in the pathophysiology of and outcome after acute neurological injury.[dx.doi.org]
  • Reproductive Endocrinology, physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1986;643-682. Google Scholar 3. Stanczyk FZ. Pharmacokinetics of progestogens. Int Proc J 1989;1:11-20. Google Scholar 4. Stanczyk FZ.[doi.org]
  • DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e31823088fa , PMID: 22088981 Issn Print: 0885-9701 Publication Date: 2011/11/01 Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid Excerpt WITHIN the last 20 years, a significant body of literature has advanced our understanding of the pathophysiologic[doi.org]


  • […] induces a rapid degradation of ERa in the uterus and in the breast, thereby prevents the stimulatory effects of estrogens on epithelial proliferation of these two sex targets.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] the cardiac electrical system opposes E2 effects and prevents sudden death/long QT syndrome; transdermal estradiol/OMP does not increase venous thromboembolism in observational data.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Future developments will demonstrate whether UPA can be used for other indications such as endometriosis and breast cancer prevention or treatment. 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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