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Prostatic Disease


Presentation

  • However, significant numbers of patients with benign prostate biopsies presented with PSA above 12 ng/ml (82/260 32%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recurrent Inflammation
  • In addition, bacterial and viral infection may lead to chronic and recurrent inflammation of the prostate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • The present approach must be validated prospectively on a large series of cases in order to create an expert system for diagnosing such fine-needle aspirations from prostate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • On these indications, repeated aspiration should be done if the first biopsy specimen does not reveal cancer.[link.springer.com]
  • Finlay EMH, Wilson DW, Adlercreutz H, Griffiths K: The identification and measurement of ‘phyto-oestrogens’ in human saliva, plasma, breast aspirate or cyst fluid, and prostatic fluid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.[karger.com]
Dysgeusia
  • An association between dysgeusia and dysuria has not been described before.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Impulsivity
  • […] mechanism of the dysgeusia associated with dysuria in benign prostatic disease is unknown, but we suggest that the dysgeusia could be from the stress of dysuria or due to a release of an unknown chemical from the urinary tract or an overflow of neural impulse[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Enlargement of the Prostate
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia or hypertrophy (BPH) is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland; it is the most common type of prostate disease in men.[urologist-perth.com.au]
  • Some men with only slightly enlarged prostates can have significant symptoms, while other men with very enlarged prostates can have only minor urinary symptoms. In some men, symptoms eventually stabilize and might even improve over time.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate (BPH) Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is more common as men get older. It is not life threatening, but can significantly affect your quality of life.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • This disease may affect men of any age and can occur in any prostate whether small or enlarged. Symptoms of prostatitis are similar to those caused by an enlarged prostate and include urge frequency with difficulty in emptying the bladder.[med.virginia.edu]
  • On this page: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a very common condition affecting men over 50 years old as a result of enlargement of the prostate gland. Up to 75% of men over 70 have urinary symptoms as a result of prostate enlargement.[stgeorges.nhs.uk]
Urinary Retention
  • Patients almost always present with urinary retention. Fifteen prostatectomies performed at Alotau Hospital are reviewed. Surgical techniques and associated problems are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, acute urinary retention and kidney damage can be serious health threats. Having an enlarged prostate is not believed to increase your risk of developing prostate cancer.[mayoclinic.org]
  • They often presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (45.5%) and urinary retention (41.5%), although a significant proportion of cases were missing clinical information (10.1%).[ajol.info]
  • Sensations of incomplete emptying, terminal dribbling, overflow incontinence, or complete urinary retention may ensue.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Significant urinary retention and backing up of urine to the kidneys is particularly dangerous and can lead to uremia (toxic levels of urea in the blood). In addition, the risk of cancer increases with age. The St.[oncotherm.com]
Nocturia
  • Symptoms and Signs Symptoms of BPH include a constellation of symptoms that are often progressive, known collectively as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS): Urinary frequency Urgency Nocturia Hesitancy Intermittency Frequency, urgency, and nocturia are[merckmanuals.com]
  • Symptoms are those of bladder outlet obstruction—weak stream, hesitancy, urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, incomplete emptying, terminal dribbling, overflow or urge incontinence, and complete urinary retention.[msdmanuals.com]
  • […] have finished urinating (chronic) or you are unable to pass urine at all (acute) Irritative symptoms Frequency – the need to urinate a short time after you have been Urgency – the need to urinate immediately, a sensation that you may leak if you delay Nocturia[urologist-perth.com.au]
  • Common signs and symptoms of BPH include: Frequent or urgent need to urinate Increased frequency of urination at night (nocturia) Difficulty starting urination Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts Dribbling at the end of urination Inability[mayoclinic.org]
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia Tradition has divided symptoms of “prostatism” into those of obstruction (hesitancy, poor flow, intermittency, abdominal straining, feeling of not fully emptying bladder, dribbling, and double voiding) and those of irritation (dysuria, nocturia[aneskey.com]
Painful Ejaculation
  • Others have pain or burning during urination, blood in the urine or semen, pain in the back, hips, or pelvis, and painful ejaculation.[medicinenet.com]
  • Prostate cancer symptoms include difficulty with beginning urination, a frequent need to urinate, primarily at night; the inability to urinate; weak or sporadic urine flow; painful or a burning sensation during urination; painful ejaculation; blood in[med.virginia.edu]
  • These may include the classic symptoms of prostatism or symptoms of dyspareunia (painful ejaculation). The patient with bacterial prostatitis may present with fever and septic shock.[aneskey.com]
Hematuria
  • Blood in the urine ( hematuria) can be a sign that there is prostate cancer , in particular with other signs of prostatic -prekanceroza , which requires immediate examination by a specialist or a doctor.[altera.si]
  • Straining to void can cause congestion of superficial veins of the prostatic urethra and trigone, which may rupture and cause hematuria.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Hematuria may suggest prostatic disease but can arise from anywhere in the genitourinary tract. Incontinence is not generally a result of purely prostatic disease.[aneskey.com]
  • Although this complication has become much less common, chronic BOO secondary to BPH may lead to urinary retention, renal insufficiency, recurrent urinary tract infections , gross hematuria, and bladder calculi .[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, an elevated blood level of C-reactive protein, and microscopic hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed testicular engorgement. Diagnostic tests were performed.[nejm.org]

Workup

  • Diagnostic Criteria Whether volunteered by the patient or elicited by the primary care provider, voiding symptoms usually initiate the workup for BPH.[aneskey.com]
  • In addition, peak urinary flow, voided volume, and symptoms may worsen over time in men with untreated BPH (see Workup ). The risk of AUR and the need for corrective surgery increases with age.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Prostate cancer A sudden onset of erectile dysfunction may be a sign that a man has prostate cancer, so your doctor will likely order a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and do a digital rectal exam during the diagnostic workup to assess this possibility[harvardprostateknowledge.org]
Prostatic Lesion
  • Our results indicate that prostatic lesions whether benign or malignant are not associated with either elevation of serum amylase or abnormal isozyme zymograms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Erinomo, “Histopathological Pattern of Prostatic Lesions in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Lagos: A 12-Month Prospective Autopsy Study (January to December 2009),” Dissertation, The National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria, Lagos, 2010[scirp.org]
Polyps
  • […] cases (27%) it was shown to be a false positive, mainly due to imperfect cleansing of the anal canal; in 284 cases (58%) benign disease was demonstrated (hemorrhoids in 192 patients, abscesses in 21, perianal fistulas in 18, inflamed lymph nodes in 27, polyps[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Human prostatic cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU 145 were studied to examine the effects of heat shock treatment (HST), androgen (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone: 5 alpha DHT) and antiandrogen (hydroxyflutamide: OH-Flut) on cell growth and survival.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Alternative healing treatment of prostate cancer , prostatitis to eliminate the cause of -geo radiation.[altera.si]

Prognosis

  • Abstract Investigation of biological variables in prostatic disease may not only prevent patients with a good prognosis being overtreated, but allow better selection of appropriate therapy, and may identify potential targets for novel therapies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis The most important and established indicators of prognosis for prostate carcinoma include the Gleason grade, the extent of tumor volume, and the presence of capsular penetration or margin positivity at the time of prostatectomy.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and the various parameters derived utilizing this marker have increased our ability to diagnose early prostatic disease; however, their accuracy in identifying the etiology of the disease remains somewhat limited[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology is unknown but probably involves hormonal changes associated with aging. Resources In This Article[msdmanuals.com]
  • The etiology is unknown but probably involves hormonal changes associated with aging.[merckmanuals.com]
  • However, the fact that serum testosterone levels decrease with age, yet the development of BPH increases, suggests that other agents play an etiologic role.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract An increasing number of preclinical data, epidemiological evidences and clinical trials point to a potential role of natural compounds like herbal extracts, carotenoids and specific metals in the prevention and/or treatment of different prostate[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Zaridze DG, Boyle P: Cancer of the prostate: Epidemiology and aetiology. Br J Urol 1987;59:493–503. Skeet RG: Epidemiology of urological tumours; in Williams DI, Chisholm GD (eds); Scientific Foundations of Urology, vol II.[karger.com]
  • Rich, “On the Frequency of Occurrence of Occult Carcinoma of the Prostate,” International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2007, pp. 274-277. doi:10.1093/ije/dym050 [ 19 ] F. F. Angwafo III, A. Zaher, R. Befidi-Mengue, A. Wonkam, I.[scirp.org]
  • Epidemiology Despite the frequency of BPH and the quantity of resources invested in BPH treatment, the epidemiology of the condition remains poorly studied ( Guess, 1995 ). The main risk factors are age and the presence of androgens.[aneskey.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The base of the prostate lies superiorly against the bladder; the apex lies below, against the urogenital diaphragm.[aneskey.com]
  • BPH involves the stromal and epithelial elements of the prostate arising in the periurethral and transition zones of the gland (see Pathophysiology ).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology [ edit ] Benign prostate hyperplasia As men age, the enzymes aromatase and 5-alpha reductase increase in activity.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has clearly stated the chemopreventive properties of finasteride for prostate cancer but the necessity to provide such preventive therapy to a specific group of men with a higher risk to develop a clinically significant[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, early treatment of prostate conditions is extremely important in order to prevent painful and risky surgery or even cancer. Too few men take advantage of prostate cancer screening.[oncotherm.com]

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