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Pseudoainhum in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex: a case report and review of the literature.


  • There exist reports on the involvement being present in up to six generations.[scielo.br]
  • We describe a patient presenting in association with psoriatic erythroderma. A 27-year-old male presented with generalized erythema and scaling all over body for 1 month.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 54-year-old woman with a previous history of ovarian adenocarcinoma presented with painful edema of the distal half of the fifth left finger.[jrheum.org]
  • The patient could not recall how long the painless, asymptomatic lesions had been present. She reported no trauma to the toes or feet. Figure.[jaoa.org]
  • A case of atypical localized scleroderma presenting with pseudoainhum: treatment with tranilas.t, an anti-fibrotic agent. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996; 76:162.[revista.spdv.com.pt]
  • X-chromosome monosomy, mosaicism for X-chromosome monosomy, or structurally abnormal second X chromosomes, and it affects many organ systems. 7 Patients with Turner syndrome classically develop a triad of short stature, impaired sexual development, and infertility[jaoa.org]
Short Stature
  • (1 in 2500), 6 Turner syndrome is caused by X-chromosome monosomy, mosaicism for X-chromosome monosomy, or structurally abnormal second X chromosomes, and it affects many organ systems. 7 Patients with Turner syndrome classically develop a triad of short[jaoa.org]
  • She had diffuse xerotic eczema. Medications included daily Protandim, multivitamin, 1000 mg of L-arginine, and 100 mg of celecoxib, as well as approximately 500 mg of acetaminophen per week. She did not smoke cigarettes.[jaoa.org]
  • Lymphangitic processes, dyshidrotic eczema, onychomycosis, and blister formation are other related alterations. 12,17,18 The histopathologic alterations in Unna-Thost PPK are non specific.[scielo.br]
Skin Ulcer
  • Persistent skin ulcers, mutilations, and acro-osteolysis in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with phospholipid excretion. Report of a family. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;21:736-9. 3. Ashwani P, Swapna K, Rani SM, Reddy BS.[ijpd.in]
  • Report of Case A 44-year-old white woman with Turner syndrome (45,X) presented for a routine rheumatologic examination for episodic oligoarthritis in her right ankle.[jaoa.org]


  • Whenever in the presence of pseudoainhum, a detailed workup, including autoimmune disorders screening, is mandatory in order to rule out possible associated syndromes or underlying diseases.[revista.spdv.com.pt]
Lymphocytic Infiltrate
  • Skin biopsy showed marked compact hyperkeratosis with a normal granular layer, mild-to-moderate acanthosis, and mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltration.[ijdvl.com]
  • Dermis showed sparse superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. All the histopathological features were consistent with pityriasis rubra pilaris. After checking the fasting lipid profile, the patient was started on Cap.[jemds.com]


  • There is no medical treatment which can halt the progression in Ainhum Steroid injections and salicylic acid ointment may reduce pain Surgery may release the constricting band Ainhum.[learningradiology.com]
  • Keloid pathogenesis and treatment [review]. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006; 117 (1):286-300. doi:10.1097/01.prs.0000195073.73580.46. [CrossRef] [PubMed] Figure.[jaoa.org]
  • We alsodescribe her treatment course, which consisted ofa failed z-plasty, the traditional therapeutic optionfor acute pseudoainhum, and report the success ofsubsequent full thickness skin graft, suggesting thebenefit of this procedure as a therapeutic[escholarship.org]
  • The patient studied in this paper initially received treatment with oral antibiotics and local care at the focus of infection on his right foot.[scielo.br]
  • Treatment of the underlying disease may sometimes reverse the process. Codes ICD10CM: L94.9 – Ainhum SNOMEDCT: 19988008 – Pseudoainhum Best Tests Subscription Required References Subscription Required Last Updated: 09/02/2015[visualdx.com]


  • Prognosis Outcome is related to the stage in ainhum when the disease is diagnosed. Pain may be severe in ainhum and in pseudoainhum.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official… 2016 Pseudoainhum is a disorder of unknown etiology that is usually congenital and nonprogressive.[semanticscholar.org]
  • MD * Case Reports Abstract Author Information Authors Pseudoainhum is a rare condition of unknown etiology that produces digital constricting rings, most commonly on the small fingers.[journals.lww.com]
  • 5 syphilis, 6 leprosy, 7 cicatrices, 8 metabolic diseases, 9 syringomyelia, peripheral neuritis, 10 parasites, 11 keratoderma hereditaria mutilans, 12 ancylostomiasis, 13 a family disease, 14 and congenital anomaly, 15 as well as the result of known etiological[jamanetwork.com]
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of ainhum has not been clearly elucidated.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Ainhum is a disease of unknown etiology, common in middle aged African males accustomed to walking barefoot.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Epidemiology Ainhum (dactylolysis spontanea) is traditionally a disease of middle-aged African males accustomed to going barefoot. 1 In the tropic and subtropic climates, its incidence has been reported as between 0.015% and 2% of the population. 2 This[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • Intralesional injection of corticosteroids is also helpful. [2] Epidemiology [ edit ] Ainhum predominantly affects black people, living in West Africa, South America and India.[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • When associated with chronic trauma and infection of the extremities, the pathophysiology may be identical to true ainhum. ...[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • When associated with chronic trauma and infection of the extremities, the pathophysiology may be identical to true ainhum. Clinical Findings Ainhum usually affects the fifth toe; it may be unilateral, but 75% of the cases are bilateral.[plasticsurgerykey.com]
  • There are three pathophysiological categories of pseudoainhum- (1) congenital constricting bands are caused by the umbilical cord; (2) constriction by external forces, such as hairs or threads, which are generally factitial; and (3) constricting bands[jemds.com]
  • Pathophysiology In true ainhum, dactylolysis of a toe (most commonly, but not always, [4, 5] the fifth toe) most likely is triggered by trauma; however, the true cause remains unknown. The trauma may be related to walking barefoot in the tropics.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • Congenital pseudoainhum cannot be prevented and can lead to serious birth defects. [4] Treatment [ edit ] Incisions across the groove turned out to be ineffective.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Treatment with oral retinoids is more beneficial in the prevention of teeth destruction if started early during eruption and maintained during development of the permanent teeth. [8] Further, oral rehabilitation with newer orthodontic procedures such[idoj.in]

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