The intervals of attack of the disease alternate with periods of remission. The signs and symptoms include the following.
Based on the type of joint involved, psoriatic arthritis can be categorized into:
Typical sign and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis related to the joints include the following.
A large number of findings are also seen in the other organs and systems of the body. These include the following.
Diagnosis is made on the basis of:
Complete cure of psoriatic arthritis is not possible. However, treatment of symptoms can help the patients to live with this disease.
Conservative treatment is done through:
Medical treatment of the disease is done with:
Treatment of secondary disorders like hypertension should also be done.
Surgical options include:
The disease may be mild causing occasional attacks and flares or severe causing acute joint damage. Early treatment can help avoid gross joint deformities. With early diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment, the prognosis of the disease is usually excellent with long life expectancy. Newer medications are proving to be more effective, resulting in an even better prognosis.
Most of the cases of psoriatic arthritis are idiopathic with unknown etiology. Known causes that can trigger the disease include the following.
5-30% of the patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis. The disease usually develops during the fourth and fifth decade of life, being most common at the age of 30 to 50. Males and females are equally affected. A familial predisposition to psoriatic arthritis exists.
The disease is more prevalent amongst the Caucasians as compared to people of African or Asian origin. The condition is not infectious.
The exact underlying mechanism of psoriatic arthritis is unknown. However, autoantibodies against the body’s own tissues are thought to be the underlying mechanism of psoriatic arthritis. The normal joint cells are destroyed. Overproduction of skin cells also occurs.
Response to anti-TNF α therapy suggests the involvement of activated T cells and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the pathophysiology of the disease. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC loci may also be involved.
Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the joints and is closely related to psoriasis (a skin disorder). Tissues other than joints can also be involved. In about 80% of the cases, arthritis follows psoriasis but in approximately 15% of the cases, it precedes psoriasis. Multiorgan inflammation can develop leading to wide spread signs and symptoms of the disease.
The disease is usually managed with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). If the disease is diagnosed early, gross deformities of the joints can be prevented and the patients have a very good prognosis.
Psoriatic arthritis is a disease of joints that is closely related to a skin disorder, called psoriasis. The disease develops mainly due to gene abnormalities as well as defect in body’s immune mechanisms. The simplest way to prevent psoriatic arthritis is to maintain the physical activity. Vitamin D supplements and incorporation of calcium containing foods in diet (milk etc.) can also prevent the development of this disease.
The disease manifests as pain and swelling in the joints leading to restriction of movements. The patient may experience difficulty in walking. Development of raised skin patches is also a common finding of this disease. As the disease progresses, eyes, lungs, bones and even heart can become involved. The disease is treated by the use of pain killers along with other agents. If the disease is diagnosed and treated early, there is good long term quality of life.