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Psychosis

Psychosis Atypical

Psychosis refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, often described as a loss of contact with reality. The two main symptoms of psychosis are hallucinations and delusions. The causes of psychosis have three main classifications: Psychological causes, General medical conditions and Substances.


Presentation

  • Here we present the case of a patient suffering from delusions, which turned out to be caused by encephalitis secondary to a previously unknown HIV infection. A review of psychosis in HIV-infected patients is also presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She presented to us with psychotic symptoms but also noted to have many catatonic features, which were also present on previous presentations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a case of a 15 year-old female adolescent with first-episode psychosis with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis not related to tumor, which manifested with delusion, hallucinations, panic attacks, agitation, and neurological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study is a case series.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Participants were asked whether the action was presented verbally or non-verbally (action presentation type discrimination), and whether the action was performed or imagined (self-monitoring).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Myxedema
  • Myxedema psychosis is rarely the initial presenting symptom of hypothyroidism, especially in the absence of other abnormal clinical or laboratory findings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Thrombosis
  • Findings on neuroimaging were attributed to APS-associated thrombosis in most cases. Most patients had a complete resolution of psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSION: APS-associated psychosis is rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abnormal Eye Movement
  • We will consider hallucinosis, abnormal eye movements, sensory attenuation deficits, catatonia, and delusions as various expressions of the same core pathology: namely, an aberrant encoding of precision.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Blepharospasm
  • Abstract A 73-year-old woman with no previous psychiatric history received clonazepam maintenance therapy for essential blepharospasm. Visual, auditory, and tactile hallucinations as well as paranoid delusions were documented.[doi.org]
Delusion
  • A delusion is where a person has an unshakeable belief in something untrue.[nhs.uk]
  • The syndrome is quite stereotypic, with hallucinations being the most common, followed by delusions. While the hallucinations are usually not very bothersome, the delusions are typically paranoid in nature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Psychosis is a symptom complex that may include hallucinations, delusions, disorders of thought, and disorganized speech or behavior.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Antipsychotic drugs, which reduce hallucinations and delusions and improve thinking and behavior, are helpful. How well a person does depends on the cause of the psychosis. If the cause can be corrected, the outlook is often good.[nlm.nih.gov]
Psychiatric Manifestation
  • According to the literature, this psychiatric manifestation resolves within 2 weeks of discontinuing the offending agent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is growing evidence that a proportion of psychosis/ psychiatric manifestations in children may be immunemediated, and physicians should consider this etiology in each presentation of first-episode psychosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other psychiatric manifestations are also found, as behavioral, cognitive, learning, and mood disorders. However, they are less frequent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case reports, case series or reviews with original data regarding psychiatric manifestations and cognitive impairment published between January 1967 and June 2012 were included based on a standardized four-step selection process.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sobhan T, Rowe HM, William GR, Munoz C: Three cases of psychiatric manifestations of neurosyphilis. Psychiatr Serv 2004;55:830-832.[doi.org]
Flat Affect
  • ., flat affect, lack of initiative) rare deterioration of the patients' personality absence of psychosis in the patient's family absence of premorbid schizoid traits and better premorbid day-to-day function psychosis marked by ideas of reference, paranoid[epilepsy.com]
  • Symptoms may include bizarre delusions, prominent hallucinations, incoherence, flat affect, avolition, and anhedonia. Functioning is impaired in interpersonal, academic, or occupational relations and self-care.[dualdiagnosis.org]
Personality Change
  • Symptoms may also include personality changes and emotional problems. There are many causes of dementia, including alzheimer disease, brain cancer, and brain injury. Dementia usually gets worse over time.[icd9data.com]
  • Group 3 is characterized by mild mental retardation and late‐onset behavioural or personality changes.[doi.org]
  • change, emotional lability • Fatigue, weakness, apathy, lethargy, daydreaming, sleepiness • Confusion, amnesia, dizziness, delirium • Staring, "glassy" look, blurred vision, double vision • Automatic behavior • Difficulty speaking, slurred speech • Ataxia[priory.com]
  • An elderly person with this disease experiences chronic confusion and loss of memory and may experience paranoia or other personality changes.[britannica.com]
  • Personality Changes following Frontal Leucotomy ( London : Oxford University Press ). Google Scholar Tuke, J.B. ( 1890 ). ' The surgical treatment of intracranial fluid pressure '. British Medical Journal, i, 8 - 11.[doi.org]
Polyneuropathy
  • Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS.[kmle.com]

Workup

  • OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we reviewed the association between Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and psychosis and focused on the prevalence, clinical presentation, immunologic and neurological workup, treatment options, and clinical[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Comprehensive laboratory workup, drug screening, and diagnostic imaging were negative. Vital signs were stable. Other than the amputated finger tips, the remainder of her physical examination was unremarkable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Psychiatric workup. If the history and physical exam reveal no organic basis, the next step is to determine the nature of this patient’s psychosis.[mdedge.com]
  • Endocrinology workup was negative for any obvious cause of hypoglycemia including insulinoma and extra pancreatic neoplasms.[priory.com]
  • Besides, other diagnostic workups failed to show any other reason for hepatitis. It is noteworthy that hepatitis with mildly elevated transaminase level is also a common finding in brucellosis [ 1 ].[karger.com]

Treatment

  • All had undergone GA treatment with a minimum follow-up of 3 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] duration of illness (mean dose 350 mg/d, mean duration of treatment 68 weeks) or standard dose titration in early psychosis (mean dose 112 mg/d, mean duration of treatment 38 weeks).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Posterior distributions of mean differences between each treatment and placebo were estimated using Bayesian network meta-analysis. The distributions describing each treatment effect were expressed as means (95% credible intervals).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The use of inoculations of infectious agents for their fever-inducing effects in the treatment of neurosyphilis quickly spread throughout the world, and, by the 1920s, it was considered by many to be the treatment of choice for neurosyphilis as well as[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • APS-associated psychosis may have a favorable prognosis. However, further studies need to validate this conclusion. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prompt recognition of the etiology of psychosis may improve treatment, consultation, and prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The comorbidity of the two illnesses worsens clinical and therapeutic prognosis and also suggests interesting pathophysiological hypotheses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Objective : The objective is to provide an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis.[doi.org]
  • Besides this, early onset of cannabis use ( 18years), younger age at onset of 1st episode, positive family history of psychiatric illness, being unmarried and lower socio-economic status were associated with poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Psychosis can be attributable to a combination of factors and etiologies, and all possible causes must be systematically examined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Emergency physicians should maintain an index of clinical suspicion for NMDAR encephalitis when encountering patients with progressive symptoms of catatonia and psychosis of unclear etiology. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several clinical studies showed that neuroleptic-induced dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) could be involved in the etiology of TRS. We preliminarily explored the possible beneficial effect of CLZ for dopamine supersensitivity schizophrenia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prompt recognition of the etiology of psychosis may improve treatment, consultation, and prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While POE has been associated with focal epilepsy of temporal and frontal lobe origin, its etiology and pathophysiology of POE have yet to be established.The treatment of all forms of POE, with the exception of ictal psychotic episodes, requires the use[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Key aspects of the epidemiology, clinical spectrum, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment are reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review is focused on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HIV-induced psychosis, as well as the recommended pharmacological treatment (antiretroviral therapy and antipsychotic medication) and the expected treatment response[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Due to our results, current epidemiological data, and the difficulties in differential diagnosis of neurosyphilis, routine screening tests are still recommended in the psychiatric field.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this article, we provide a unified review on the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis by integrating results of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ten epidemiological studies were relevant: three supported a causal relationship between cannabis use and diagnosed psychosis; five suggested that chronic cannabis intake increases the frequency of psychotic symptoms, but not of diagnosed psychosis; and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Current research is dealing with the delineation from "normality", the genetic underpinnings, and the causes and pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • New pathophysiological hypotheses derived from this brain system-oriented approach have helped to develop and improve novel treatment strategies with noninvasive brain stimulation and practicable clinical parameters.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We proceed with a review of the literature of disulfiram-induced psychosis and discuss pathophysiological theories that possibly were involved in our patient's phenomenology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rather, pathophysiological findings such as reduced viability of cortical glutamatergic neurones (in schizophrenia) or enhanced dopamine sensitivity (in bipolar disorder) might explain the observed reduction in GAD(67).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The comorbidity of the two illnesses worsens clinical and therapeutic prognosis and also suggests interesting pathophysiological hypotheses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Needs-based intervention was compared with specific preventive intervention comprising low-dose risperidone therapy (mean dosage, 1.3 mg/d) and cognitive behavior therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Low-dose antipsychotic treatment may be beneficial in stimulant users, to prevent sensitisation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention depends on the cause. For example, avoiding alcohol prevents psychosis caused by alcohol use. American Psychiatric Association. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In: American Psychiatric Association.[nlm.nih.gov]

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Last updated: 2018-06-22 05:54