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Ptosis

Displacement Inferior


Presentation

  • Patients were offered surgical intervention if they met criteria for safe eyelid elevation and could present for follow ups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Blepharoptosis (ptosis) is a common but often overlooked sign that may serve as a sign/manifestation of other conditions, ranging from a mild and purely cosmetic presentation to a severe and occasionally progressive disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A case of an 87-year-old woman with a history of Graves disease presenting with a 5-year history of severe ptosis and very poor levator function of the left side is presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case highlights an atypical presentation of MFS and raises the awareness of a rare autoantibody associated with it.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case is not only unique in its presentation but also emphasizes the importance of considering differential diagnoses and conservative measures before contemplating surgery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cervical Lymphadenopathy
  • Acquired HS can be caused by trauma, surgical intervention, tumours, vascular malformations or infection.We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who was brought to our emergency department with ptosis, miosis, painful cervical lymphadenopathy and a cat[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sepsis
  • Basic observations and investigations suggested sepsis: tachypnoea, sinus tachycardia, fever and a raised white cell count and C reactive protein level.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recurrent Vomiting
  • Although he experienced good recovery, seven months after the trauma he complained of cephalea, dizziness, recurrent vomiting and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed descent of the cerebellum through a wide bone defect.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Small Palpebral Fissures
  • All patients of the two families demonstrated typical features of BPES type II, including small palpebral fissures, ptosis, telecanthus, and epicanthus inversus without female infertility (POF).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Compulsive Disorder
  • He had a background of autism, mild learning disability, obsessive-compulsive disorder and asthma. Within the last month, his risperidone and sertraline doses had been increased.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mild Facial Weakness
  • There is early weakness and atrophy of forearms and quadriceps and a third of patients also have mild facial weakness. Extraocular muscles are not affected and ptosis is rarely seen.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Positive Romberg Sign
  • Initial neurological examination revealed left eyelid ptosis, hyporeflexia, positive Romberg sign, and ataxia. The ice pack test was negative. Three days later, contralateral ptosis was observed, associated with areflexia and worsened ataxia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Ganglioside antibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute polyradiculoneuropathy including MFS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Communicating Hydrocephalus
  • Four weeks after admission, he developed communicating hydrocephalus, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • However, the majority of new onset HS needs the following radiologic workup: Chest imaging: Plain X-ray or chest CT, with special attention to the lung apices.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • He was started on prednisone for possible giant cell arteritis and subsequently admitted for systemic workup. The acetylcholine receptor antibody test returned negative.[healio.com]
  • A patient with a strong family history of congenital ptosis may not need an extensive workup.[eyewiki.org]

Treatment

  • We describe the first 2 cases of ptosis because of long-term treatment with topical steroid eye drops. Two cases admitted to our hospital because of ptosis of their right eye after long-term treatment with topical steroid eye drops.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Apraclonidine is not only useful as a diagnostic test in Horner's syndrome, but may be an effective and safe treatment for BoNT-induced ptosis. Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Pharmacologic treatment of Myasthenia Gravis presents challenges due to poor tolerability in some patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of ptosis depends on age, etiology, whether one or both eyelids are involved, the severity of ptosis, the levator function, and presence of additional ophthalmologic or neurologic abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Median satisfaction score with the prescribed treatment was significantly better in group 1 than in the other groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Prognosis is good and patients have a normal lifespan. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]
  • Prognosis After diagnosing the cause of a drooping eyelid, then correcting the condition, most people have no further problems related to the ptosis. The correction, however, may still not make the eyes symmetrical.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Prognosis The repair of congenital ptosis can produce excellent functional and cosmetic results. With careful observation and treatment, amblyopia can be treated successfully.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients undergoing posterior-approach and anterior-approach ptosis surgery for all etiologies of ptosis between 2011 and 2014.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To present the management of three patients suffering from ptosis of various etiologies, with scleral contact lenses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies, also called ischemic third nerve palsies, are the most common etiologic subset of oculomotor nerve palsy in adults.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of ptosis depends on age, etiology, whether one or both eyelids are involved, the severity of ptosis, the levator function, and presence of additional ophthalmologic or neurologic abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Purpose: To evaluate the frequency of etiology of ptosis in a ophthalmic center. and the prevalence in the pediatric, and adult group Methods: A retrospective review of all patients, seen in an ophthalmology center that present ptosis between 2006 to[iovs.arvojournals.org]

Epidemiology

  • Summary Epidemiology BPES is a rare condition; the worldwide birth prevalence of BPES is unknown and can be estimated to be less than 1/50,000.[orpha.net]
  • Keywords: clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: outcomes/complications • eyelid • retina 2006, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc., all rights reserved.[iovs.arvojournals.org]
  • Some forms of congenital ptosis may represent a form of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder. [3] Epidemiology Frequency United States The frequency of congenital ptosis in the United States has not been officially reported.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology Mortality/Morbidity Mortality associated with ptosis usually results from anesthetic complications from surgery.[emedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Identification of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism is paramount to institute proper treatment. Pathophysiology Ptosis is the result of dysfunctioning of one or both upper eyelid elevator muscles.[emedicine.com]
  • Waragai, M, Shinotoh, H, Kaneko, M, Hattori, T 1996 Difficulty in eye opening following left hemispheric infarction—causative lesion and pathophysiology of abnormalities of the eye and eyelids movements.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Bone wax is a hemostatic agent well used by neurosurgeons to prevent bleeding from bone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • How can I prevent ptosis? You can’t really prevent ptosis but you might be able to stop droopy eyelids getting any worse if you get them treated early. One way to do this is to ensure you have an eye test every two years.[specsavers.co.uk]
  • Prevention Ptosis cannot be prevented. Resources ORGANIZATIONS American Academy of Ophthalmology. 655 Beach Street, P.O. Box 7424, San Francisco, CA 94120-7424. 〈 〉. American Medical Association. 515 N.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Prevention Ptosis cannot be prevented. Resources ORGANIZATIONS American Academy of Ophthalmology. 655 Beach Street, P.O. Box 7424, San Francisco , CA 94120-7424. 〈 〉 . American Medical Association . 515 N.[encyclopedia.com]

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