Pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) is largely divided into two distinct categories depending on the location of the stenosis: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 PAS involves one or multiple sites of arterial stenosis found in the main pulmonary artery or its major branches, whereas type 2 PAS results in one or more narrowings in the peripheral branches of the pulmonary arteries .
Patients may be pediatric but the condition might as well be diagnosed during adulthood. Some individuals with arterial stenoses that amount to less than 50% of the vascular diameter may experience no symptomatology. Patients with more profound stenosis usually exhibit dyspnea and fatigue, poor appetite, tachypnea, and low exercise tolerance, while cyanosis, tachycardia, peripheral edema, and ascites are also possible. Dyspnea and fatigue constitute the symptoms typically involved in the vast majority of PAS cases and are typically elicited following exercise; most individuals are in their second decade of life when symptoms are initially reported . Hepatomegaly may also be found and together with peripheral edemas greatly suggest the existence of right ventricular failure on the grounds of PAS.
In general, most patients affected by type 1 pulmonary artery stenosis are asymptomatic. The most common finding that raises suspicion and necessitates further investigations is a continuous, ductus-like murmur heard during cardiac auscultation. On the other hand, type 2 PAS can either be an isolated abnormal finding or manifest as part of another clinical entity such as Alagille syndrome, Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), or following pulmonary artery surgical reconstruction  . Therefore, patients with peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis may also exhibit symptoms directly associated with one of these disorders, such as dental malformation and mental retardation, that is caused by Williams-Beuren syndrome. Lastly, both Behçet disease and Takayasu arteritis encompass type 2 PAS in their clinical spectrum and patients affected by the aforementioned disorders are also expected to present with corresponding manifestations such as fever, hypertension, and heart failure in the case of Takayasu arteritis, or uveitis, oral aphthous ulcers, and genital ulcers in Behçet disease     . Pulmonary hypertension is a common manifestation of type 2 pulmonary artery stenosis.
- Heart Disease
Abstract Pulmonary artery stenosis is a challenging problem in the management of congenital heart disease. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Atrial septal defect (Medical Encyclopedia) Bicuspid aortic valve (Medical Encyclopedia) Congenital heart defect corrective surgeries (Medical Encyclopedia) Congenital heart disease (Medical Encyclopedia) [icdlist.com]
Pulmonary artery stenosis often presents a challenge concerning its diagnosis, due to the fact that the disorder is often asymptomatic. The patients that do not experience PAS-related symptoms may be diagnosed incidentally during tests conducted for other cardiac abnormalities, whereas those who complain about significant symptomatology are required to undergo various procedures to reach an accurate diagnosis. A complete workup involves the following tests:
- Thoracic radiograph. A chest X-ray may reveal regions of stenosed pulmonary arteries in some patients, by illustrating the dilated section following the stenosis. Pulmonary vessels might appear as diminished, augmented, or normal, depending on the particular characteristics of the vascular abnormality involved.
- Electrocardiogram. It may reveal findings consistent with right ventricular hypertrophy which results from a systolic overload of the structure .
- Selective angiocardiography. A procedure that greatly contributes to the diagnosis of PAS.
- Catheter-guided pulmonary arteriography. It is employed to detect areas of stenosis and can also diagnose right ventricular hypertension . It does constitute the gold standard for the detection of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis .
- Pulmonary perfusion imaging. The procedure may reveal localized imbalance in lung perfusion but remains a test with no specificity for PAS .
The safety and efficacy of balloon-expandable stents for treatment of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPAS) is evaluated and analyzed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
To report robot-assisted stenting of a stenosis at the pulmonary artery anastomosis following lung transplantation, a rare complication that conveys poor prognosis even after surgical correction. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Although the long-term prognosis in our patient remains uncertain, the percutaneous insertion of a stent restored perfusion to the transplanted lung and avoided the risk of further surgery. [err.ersjournals.com]
Pulmonary artery stenosis usually improves and only rarely limits prognosis. Received September 28, 1989. Revision received December 20, 1989. Accepted January 10, 1990. [onlinejacc.org]
What is the prognosis? The prognosis for this condition is generally good, with survival without complications nearly 100%. In the long term, these children fare well and most have no symptoms and lead normal lives. [childrensheartcentre.com]
Prognosis and Management Benign type generally disappears before one year of age. [pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
The surgery indicated a probable etiology of chronic pericarditis. This is an extremely rare case of adult pulmonary artery stenosis without a known history of congenital disease, constrictive pericarditis, tuberculosis, or surgery. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] ses ) an abnormal narrowing or contraction of a body passage or opening; called also arctation, coarctation, and stricture. aortic stenosis obstruction to the outflow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta; in the majority of adult cases the etiology [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management. World J Cardiol 2016;8:81-8. 4. Seale AN, Daubeney PE, Magee AG, Rigby ML. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Initial experience with cutting balloon angioplasty. Heart 2006;92:815-20. 5. [jcecho.org]
∗∗ In the absence of other etiologies of LV dilatation. ψ Quantitative parameters can help sub-classify the moderate regurgitation group into mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe regurgitation as shown. [echopedia.org]
According to epidemiological estimates, pregnant women who smoke have almost double the risk of low birth weight and three times the risk of premature birth than pregnant women who do not smoke. [germanchoices.blogspot.com]
Pathophysiology A systolic pressure gradient between the pumping chamber and its downstream artery is the primary hemodynamic abnormality of stenosis regardless of whether the obstruction is right- or left-sided. [pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
[…] doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jew046 Download citation file: Ris (Zotero) EndNote BibTex Medlars ProCite RefWorks Reference Manager © 2019 Oxford University Press Close Navbar Search Filter Mobile Microsite Search Term Close search filter search input Aims The pathophysiology [academic.oup.com]
However, it is not always easy to prevent the right pulmonary artery twisting after implantation of the extracardiac conduit. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] ventricular septal defect, 2) a narrowing at or just beneath the pulmonary valve, 3) a right ventricle that is more muscular than normal, 4) an aorta that lies directly over the ventricular septal defect Pulmonary atresia – absence of a pulmonary valve, preventing [my.clevelandclinic.org]
Endocarditis Prevention If you have PS, you don't need to take antibiotics to prevent endocarditis unless you've had prior endocarditis or you've had valve replacement. See the section on Endocarditis for more information. [heart.org]
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