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Pulsating Exophthalmos


Presentation

  • Other patients presented demonstrate the strong familial trend of neurofibromatosis, the multiplicity of lesions, the progression of lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] exophthalmos in a child. ( 24119872 ) 2014 2 Reconstruction of the sphenoid wing in a case of neurofibromatosis type 1 and complex unilateral orbital dysplasia with pulsating exophthalmos. ( 21471549 ) Friedrich R.E. 2011 3 Carotid cavernous sinus fistula presenting[malacards.org]
  • Presentation : these variably present from early childhood (especially lymphangiomas) to adulthood. Varices present with intermittent proptosis (evident in the Valsalva manoeuvre) visible lesions in the eyelid.[patient.info]
Falling
  • Other specific types of fractures that fall into this category are: cutting fractures, fractures disjunction, skull fractures explosions. - Base of skull fractures. They may be the floor above, middle or rear deck. - Joint Fractures.[medicaldb.blogspot.com]
Subcutaneous Nodule
  • He had facial asymmetry, multiple cutaneous café-au-lait spots and a subcutaneous nodule, biopsy of which showed features consistent with neurofibromatosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cafe-Au-Lait Spots
  • The most common features of the disease include multiple neural tumors (neurofibromas) on the skin or within the body, pigmented skin lesions (ie. cafe au lait spots), and Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas).[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
Pulsating Exophthalmos
  • A patient with pulsating exophthalmos is presented. He had facial asymmetry, multiple cutaneous café-au-lait spots and a subcutaneous nodule, biopsy of which showed features consistent with neurofibromatosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ICD-9-CM ICD-9 V. 3 ICD-10-CM ICD-10-PCS HCPCS NDC Menu The ICD 9 Code for Pulsating exophthalmos is listed as 376.35.[emedcodes.com]
  • . inherited exophthalmos exophthalmos with strabismus is inherited in cattle. ophthalmoplegic exophthalmos inability to move the eye because of exophthalmos. pulsating exophthalmos due to an arteriovenous fistula of the orbit.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Red Eye
  • The patient had experienced a red eye 2 weeks prior to admission, and a diagnosis of episcleritis had been made and treatment initiated with flumethalone eyedrops.[nature.com]
  • Red eye - conjunctival injection increases with the exophthalmos. In severe cases, there may be a secondary exposure keratopathy as a result of incomplete lid closure over the cornea.[patient.info]
Unilateral Proptosis
  • Causes of unilateral proptosis include: 1. Congenital conditions. These include: dermoid cyst, congenital cystic eyeball, and orbital teratoma. 2. Traumatic lesions.[ikeyes.blogspot.com]
Anisocoria
  • NIH: National Eye Institute Anisocoria (Medical Encyclopedia) Choroidal dystrophies (Medical Encyclopedia) Coloboma of the iris (Medical Encyclopedia) Episcleritis (Medical Encyclopedia) Eye and orbit ultrasound (Medical Encyclopedia) Eye burning - itching[icdlist.com]
Papilledema
  • Dilated fundus exam: OD—normal fundus; OS—grade 3 papilledema with palor (see Figure 3) Figure 1 : Multiple café au lait spots Figure 2 : Axial pigmentation and freckling was apparent on exam Figure 3 : Papilledema and palor of the optic disc are observed[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
  • Dural arteriovenous malformations and papilledema. Neurosurgery 1988; 22 : 1079–1084.[nature.com]
  • Common signs of CCF include proptosis, temporal/orbital bruit, chemosis, extraocular palsy, pulsating exophthalmos, elevated IOP, anterior segment ischemia, papilledema, optic nerve atrophy and trigeminal nerve involvement.[healio.com]

Workup

  • The phase of the disease will then ultimately determine the indicated workup and treatment. Differential Diagnosis Depending on the presenting symptoms, further workup can be necessary to rule out other possible diagnoses.[reviewofophthalmology.com]

Treatment

  • As the irreversible effects of glaucoma can lead to blindness, there is high demand for early diagnosis and an ongoing need for practitioners to adopt new and evolving medical and surgical treatment options to improve patient outcomes.[books.google.com]
  • Early detection and treatment could prevent vision loss. See an eye care professional right away if you have a sudden change in vision, if everything looks dim, or if you see flashes of light.[icdlist.com]
  • L. : Specific treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Experiences with 143 surgically treated patients . J. Neurosurg. 8 ( 1951 ), 75 . Google Scholar Medline[journals.sagepub.com]
  • The diagnosis and treatment of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Aesth Plast Surg 2012;36:638-648. 11. Stan MN, Garrity JA, Bahn RS. The evaluation and treatment of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Med Clin N Am 2012;96:311-328. 12.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • Treatment is via surgical excision.[patient.info]

Prognosis

  • Late facial paralysis is usually a better prognosis than the paralysis that occur immediately. FRACTURES stones can cause bone and VIII cranial nerve injury, resulting in hearing loss, vertigo and nystagmus immediately after the injury.[medicaldb.blogspot.com]
  • Visual prognosis in carotid-cavernous fistula. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99(9):1600-1603.[healio.com]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • Otorhinolaryngological examination is necessary when the paranasal sinus or a nasopharyngeal mass apears to be a possible etiological factor. II.[ikeyes.blogspot.com]
  • A etiologic factors include trauma, surgery, infection, and sinus thrombosis. 3, 4, 5 The clinical presentations of DAVMs depend on the location of the DAVM and include tinnitus, cranial nerve palsies, and/or signs related to venous congestion in the[nature.com]
  • Proptosis, chemosis, episcleral venous congestion Given that trauma is the etiology of the patient’s signs and symptoms, the differential diagnosis becomes quite narrow.[healio.com]
  • A CT or an MRI can show an orbital abscess and/or sinus disease to clinch the diagnosis of an orbital cellulitis, while a tendon-involving enlargement of the extraocular muscles makes IOI a more likely etiology ( See Figure 2 ).[reviewofophthalmology.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology and prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 2002 Oct. 12(10):855-60. [Medline]. Putta-Manohar S, Perros P. Epidemiology of Graves' orbitopathy. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2010 Mar. 7 Suppl 2:182-5. [Medline].[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1994;92:477-588. 4. Stan MN, Bahn RS.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • Diagnosis: Optic nerve glioma associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 EPIDEMIOLOGY of NF1 Rare condition (1 per 3-4,000 people) characterized by hamartomas of neural crest origin Autosomal dominant inheritance Variable expressivity, 100% penetrance Half[webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Decreased vision - visual acuity may be impaired by: Direct optic nerve involvement due to the pathophysiology. Distortion of the macula by a lesion pushing in behind the globe. Exposure keratopathy (see above) can also affect the visual acuity.[patient.info]
  • The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease: implications for immunotherapy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011 Sep. 22 (5):385-90. [Medline]. Ugradar S, Rootman DB. Case Series: Noninflammatory Thyroid Eye Disease.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Hip Fracture Prevention in Older Adults in 2019 This JAMA Insights Clinical Update reviews approaches to fracture prevention in older adults, including estimating fracture risk and life expectancy, selecting and managing appropriate medications, an...[bioportfolio.com]
  • Early detection and treatment could prevent vision loss. See an eye care professional right away if you have a sudden change in vision, if everything looks dim, or if you see flashes of light.[icdlist.com]
  • Prevent and plan for complications in advance by examining over 1,600 illustrations, photos and graphics (1,250 in color) capturing essential diagnostics techniques, imaging methods and surgical approaches.[books.google.com]
  • In hypothermic patients, I found cardiac arrhythmias could be induced by manipulation of vessels of the Circle of Trellis as well as by other stimuli and could be prevented or alleviated by IV sodium pentathal JNS, 1958). Microsurgery.[neurosurgery.org]
  • Despite the benefits, the side-effect profile of corticosteroids prevents their long-term use.[reviewofophthalmology.com]

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