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Pyrimethamine


Presentation

  • The predictors of mortality included presentation prior to 15 January 2012, age more than 57 years, hypotension and leukocyte count less than 1.5 10(9) /L.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Noncompliance
  • It has been suggested that drug pharmacokinetics ( 12 ), overusage of drugs ( 28 ), cross-resistance between drugs ( 14 ), and inadequate treatment through inappropriate prescription or administration, noncompliance, or poor absorption ( 28, 36 ) contribute[doi.org]
Scleral Icterus
  • Scleral icterus was observed in five of 177 newborns examined. The most recent dose of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine administered was 40 to 103 days prior to delivery. There was no other mention of adverse fetal outcome.[drugs.com]
Unilateral Blindness
  • Four children had unilateral blindness, 1 had mild epileptic fits and 1 had psychomotor retardation. The lowest rate of sequelae were in Groups 2 and 3.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Convulsions
  • Following the ingestion of 300 mg or more of pyrimethamine, gastrointestinal and/or central nervous system signs may be present, including convulsions.[aidsinfo.nih.gov]
  • CNS: CNS stimulation including convulsions, respiratory failure. Drug: Folic acid, para -aminobenzoic acid (PABA) may decrease effectiveness against toxoplasmosis. Absorption: Readily absorbed from GI tract. Peak: 2 h.[robholland.com]
  • Schmidt, in 1953, observed that when massive doses of pyrimethamine were administered to monkeys, an acute toxicity developed with convulsive seizures and death. 5 Lower doses produced a chronic toxicity, characterized by granulocytopenia and lymphopenia[jamanetwork.com]
  • Convulsions may be controlled with parenteral diazepam. Storage Tablets should be kept in well-closed containers, protected from light and moisture.[apps.who.int]
Ataxia
  • Adverse effects Anorexia, abdominal cramps, vomiting, ataxia, tremors and seizures have been reported.[apps.who.int]
  • Frequently, the pulmonary reactions have accompanied other systemic symptoms. [ Ref ] Nervous system Nervous system side effects have included headache (4.1%), peripheral neuritis, mental depression, convulsions, ataxia, hallucinations, tinnitus, vertigo[drugs.com]
  • Thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and fatalities have been reported. [ Ref ] Nervous system Nervous system toxicity is problematic with higher dosages of pyrimethamine (the active ingredient contained in Daraprim) Ataxia[web.archive.org]
Agitation
  • RESULTS: Nine patients (13.8%) presented at least 1 adverse clinical event that was nonspecific, such as diarrhea on the day of drug administration, vomiting and agitation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • During the workup, the product turned yellow due to the addition of HCl. After rotovapping, the product appeared to be a yellowish oil.[malaria.ourexperiment.org]

Treatment

  • He added that " There is an urgent need for improved treatments for this disease ."[web.archive.org]
  • Immunological rebounds, generally without clinical repercussions, occurred frequently (90% of cases on average) during, or more often after therapy, regardless of the treatment duration. Treatment was always well tolerated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • High MN1 expression confers poor prognosis to AML patients and induces resistance to cytarabine and alltrans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induced differentiation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • In some patients, associated HIV infection makes it difficult to distinguish the reasons for the etiology. We herein describe an HIV-negative patient who developed hyperpigmentation after pyrimethamine use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The association between antiepileptic drugs (mainly phenytoin and phenobarbitone) and reduced serum folate concentration is well recognized, although its etiology is uncertain: drug-induced folate deficiency is the basis for possible interaction with[antimicrobe.org]

Epidemiology

  • A molecular epidemiological study of P. falciparum parasite resistance markers to SP was conducted from August 2010 to February 2012 in Mukono district in central Uganda. DNA was extracted from 413 P. falciparum-positive samples.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Doumbo 1 Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Odonto-stomatology, University of Mali, Bamako Search for other works by this author on: Kassoum Kayentao 1 Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases,[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • (prophylaxis) of malaria caused by susceptible Plasmodium. 167 Pyrimethamine-resistant strains prevalent worldwide; 167 no longer suitable for prevention of malaria in most areas 167 and not included in CDC recommendations for prevention of malaria.[drugs.com]

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