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Quadriplegia

Quadriplegias


Presentation

  • A 52-year-old man with a history of hypertension and previously irradiated head and neck cancer presented with quadriplegia and anarthria sparing the face and sensory functions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Wheelchair Bound
  • It isn't the way the able-bodied and the wheelchair-bound normally interact. "Sometimes I won't even notice what's being done," he says of his morning manoeuvres. "My mind just goes miles away.[theguardian.com]
Poikilothermia
Sneezing
  • Our case demonstrates that acute quadriplegia secondary to cervical disc herniation may occur without a history of myelopathy or spinal canal stenosis after an event as benign as a sneeze.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypophonia
  • Following contrast administration, she had a pulseless electrical activity arrest from which she recovered without cognitive sequelae, but with flaccid quadriplegia, facial diplegia, and hypophonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle Spasticity
  • We evaluated the adverse events, walking time and distance, and the difference in muscle spasticity before and after HAL-training using a modified Ashworth scale (mAs). No adverse events were observed that required discontinuation of rehabilitation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this procedure, a few nerves are cut at the roots where they divide from the spinal cord Intrathecal baclofen therapy: In this procedure, Baclofen-a muscle relaxant is injected into the spine to reduce muscle spasticity.[oaklandortho.com]
  • spasticity ) 神経症状 ( neurologic manifestation ) 脊髄損傷 ( spinal cord injury ) 診断 ( diagnosis ) 神経系疾患 ( nervous system disease ) 脳性麻痺 ( cerebral palsy ) 構音障害 ( dysarthria ) 脊髄疾患 ( spinal cord disease ) 神経学的検査 ( neurologic examination ) 麻酔 ( anesthesia )[lsd-project.jp]
Cervical Cord Compression
  • Patients with atlanto-axial instability often have mild or non-specific symptoms, despite severe cervical cord compression.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • A 26-year-old woman (para 1 0) was managed at the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria for postpartum eclampsia with quadriplegia following referral from a peripheral hospital with a history of a solitary tonic/clonic seizure and unconsciousness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Rickettsia Conorii
  • Mediterranean spotted fever is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia conorii.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Gliosis
  • At the 1-year follow-up, there was radiographic evidence of tumor, and surgical reexploration yielded portions of immature teratoma and extensive gliosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Hyperkalemia is a rare but treatable cause of acute flaccid paralysis that requires immediate treatment. Late diagnosis can delay appropriate treatment leading to cardiac arrhythmias and arrest.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • In general terms it can be said that if the patient has had paraplegia for longer than 24 hours, the prognosis is poor. Histology and tumour staging will complete the prognosis.[neupsykey.com]
  • Just as a doctor's estimate about how long a cancer patient might survive is not a guarantee, the prognosis your doctor gives you is merely a guess, not a promise or a final opinion.[spinalcord.com]
  • The toughest such decisions are the ones that involve physical disabilities and uncertain prognosis for cognitive outcomes.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

Etiology

  • This nerve conduction study can be seen in acute motor neuropathy of various etiologies, among which GBS is the most worrisome. Our patient found to have low calcium and parathyroid hormone level. His symptoms improved after calcium replacement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Their etiology can be related to post-immunization reactions or collagen diseases or paraneoplastic (bronchogenic carcinoma) processes. A particular group ( 2 and possible highlighting with contrast.[neupsykey.com]
  • Characteristics The etiology of quadriplegia has multiple origins (listed below in differential diagnosis); with most common being trauma to the cervical spinal cord at levels anywhere from C1 to C7.[link.springer.com]

Epidemiology

  • The injuries that occur above level C4 often result in respiratory deficiency. [2] Epidemiology /Etiology In the United States there is an estimated incidence of tetraplegia or paraplegia of 230 000 persons a year. [3] [4] Eighty percent of the tetraplegic[physio-pedia.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology of this kind of injury is due to the sudden stretching of the cord in a hyperflexion/hyperextension injury compounded by a narrow cervical canal due to pre-existing degenerative disc disease. 1 However, the delayed onset cannot be[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiologically, the spinal cord of the tetraplegic patient can be divided into three segments which can be useful for classifying the injury. First, there is an injured functional medullary segment.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Objective To study the occurrence of autonomic hyper‐reflexia (AHR) after intradural sacral posterior rhizotomy combined with intradural sacral anterior root stimulation, performed to manage the neurogenic hyper‐reflexic bladder, and to determine the pathophysiological[doi.org]

Prevention

  • Occipitocervical fusion from the occiput to C6 was done to stabilize the spine and prevent future kyphosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recreational therapy, respiratory care along with skin care are additional parts of the treatment which prevent many complications these patients are prone to.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • To prevent blood clots, the patient is given special stocking to wear on the legs. Pressure sores, which develop from staying in the same position for an extended period of time, also need to be prevented.[medfriendly.com]

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