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Radiation Therapy

RT


Presentation

  • Recurrent isolated cardiac metastasis presenting as a cavitary mass is rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a rare and interesting case of a patient previously treated with radiation therapy for acne vulgaris and who presented to us with a concurrent schwannoma and meningioma of the craniocervical junction mimicking a single mass.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The 55% of these cases presents low back pain, while the 45% presents neurological deficit from compression of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves or both.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old Asian man presented with a 3-week history of continuous pyrexia and left knee pain and swelling.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Classic Kaposi's sarcoma is a lymphatic endothelial cell neoplasm usually present on the skin of the upper and lower extremities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hodgkin's Disease
  • Radiation may be the primary treatment for some types of cancer, such as cancers of the head and neck, prostate, lung and Hodgkins disease. Radiation therapy may be used in combination with surgery and chemotherapy to treat many cancers.[memorialcare.org]
  • Kaiser CW: Complications from staging laparotomy for Hodgkin disease. J Surg Oncol 16 (4): 319-25, 1981. [PUBMED Abstract] Jockovich M, Mendenhall NP, Sombeck MD, et al.: Long-term complications of laparotomy in Hodgkin's disease.[cancer.gov]
  • It can also be used with surgery, being given before (neoadjuvant) or after resection (adjuvant). [ 1 ] When used alone in the early stages of certain cancers, radiotherapy can be curative - eg, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, carcinoma of[patient.info]
  • Stroke as a late treatment effect of Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:1480. CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar 16. Bowers DC, Liu Y, Leisenring W, et al.[doi.org]
  • Aynur Oguz, Tayyar Tayfun, Elvan Caglar Citak, Ceyda Karadeniz, Turkan Tatlicioglu, Oznur Boyunaga and Huseyin Bora , Long‐term pulmonary function in survivors of childhood Hodgkin disease and non‐Hodgkin lymphoma , Pediatric Blood & Cancer , 49 , 5 ,[doi.org]
Xerostomia
  • METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate radiation therapy-induced dysphagia and xerostomia in HNCPs. Data from the PARSPORT trial and the quality-of-life study were used as parameters.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The overall incidence of acute grade 3 toxicities were mucositis 32%, pain 11%, xerostomia 7%, dysphagia 53%, radiodermatitis 44%, and osteonecrosis 1%. Late grade 3 toxicities were fibrosis 6%, dysphagia 21%, fistula 1%, and skin necrosis 1%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Xerostomia (dry mouth) Radiation therapy that is delivered to the head and neck area may also result in xerostomia. Xerostomia is a chronic dry-mouth condition caused by damage to the salivary glands.[web.archive.org]
  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an increasingly available approach to the prevention of xerostomia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Professional Publications Advances in Radiation Oncology The April-June issue features an editorial thanking the journal’s peer reviewers, a scientific article on machine learning methods that predict xerostomia and the first reported case of pediatric[astro.org]
Alopecia
  • As the exposure to radiation continues, however, the body begins to notice the effect of the constant damage to its cells and a few weeks into treatment side effects may include: Fatigue Local inflamed skin Alopecia These effects tend to worsen as therapy[news-medical.net]
  • Topical application of nitroxide protects radiation-induced alopecia in guinea pigs. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992; 22 :803–806. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 23. Metz JM, Smith D, Mick R, et al.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Skin Lesion
  • Diagnosis of the secondary malignancy is often delayed because of its similarities with post-radiation skin lesion or the recurrence of the original tumors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Specific comments about screening for more common radiation-associated SNs are as follows: Screening for early-onset skin cancer: Annual dermatological exam focusing on skin lesions and pigmented nevi in the radiation field is recommended.[cancer.gov]
Delusion
  • Abstract We describe a patient who experienced a prolonged episode of headache, drowsiness, seizure, unilateral weakness, delusion and hallucination due to a stroke-like migraine attack after cranial radiation therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Distractibility
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.[onetonline.org]

Workup

  • Prompt recognition of clinical signs and radiological imaging of SMART syndrome may help prevent unnecessary interventions and initiate appropriate diagnostic workup and management. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the agreement of pretreatment Tc-macroaggregated albumin imaging performed for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) workup with Y percentage lung shunt (PLS) and regional hepatic distribution in subsequent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In repeated biopsy in July 2015 histopathological workup showed a pleomorphic epitheloid tumor with small to medium sized cells expressing vimentin and melan-A while being negative for cytokeratin establishing the diagnosis of PEComa of the liver.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Different schedules: Some stereotactic treatments may be best given in a single session, others may be given in a few treatments over several days.[web.archive.org]
  • Actual treatment time for each session is typically longer than with conventional radiation therapy because of the complexity of the treatment itself. Radiation treatments given daily or multiple times a day are called fractionated treatments.[irsa.org]
  • Although diagnostic criteria and treatment management are not established, current treatment options consist of surgery and chemotherapy including mTOR inhibitors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Image guidance was performed by means of CBCT before every treatment session. The patients were evaluated at the end of treatment for acute toxicity and at 3, 6, and 12 months for late toxicity and treatment response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer patients frequently suffer from physical and psychosocial impairments due to their disease and its treatment. Psychooncology (PO) can help to cope with stress resulting from outpatient radiotherapy (RT) treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of SBRT for lung and liver oligo-recurrent lesions and evaluate predictive factors for local control and prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the skull base after treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a very rare but very aggressive complication with a poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Corticosteroids represent the main treatment, prognosis is generally favorable. We described a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for a recurrent lung cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Metastatic pancreatic cancer is characterised by poor prognosis. High toxicity of chemotherapy limits its use in elderly patients with severe comorbidities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Before preoperative radiation therapy, small residual mandibular dentition was removed because of its poor prognosis. Radiation dose on mandible was 57-66 Gy. After tumor surgery patient received conventional complete dentures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • The main etiology of constrictive pericarditis (CP) has changed from tuberculosis to therapeutic mediastinal radiation and cardiac surgery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Because of uncertainty of the underlying etiology and unfamiliarity with this phenomenon, we made a clinical decision to arrange re-simulation and revise our treatment to conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology of massive osteolysis is unknown and it results in the progressive destruction of bony structures. There is no standard therapy available in the literature. Conservative treatment is often used for its management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Codes with this note are Etiology codes and must be followed by a Manifestation code or codes. External cause code See Section W88-W90, X39.0-) to identify cause MS-DRG Mapping DRG Group #073-074 - Cranial and peripheral nerve disorders with MCC.[icd.codes]
  • A much greater risk of a second malignancy is posed by the same etiologic and genetic mechanisms that are responsible for the primary tumor.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 a Radiation Epidemiology. 2 c Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 3 d International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. 4 e Clinical Research and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database was queried for cases of surgically resected MC. Retrospective analysis was performed with the endpoint of overall survival (OS).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Methods: A total of 19 167 Stage II-III rectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection of rectal adenocarcinoma were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • [Institutional Principal Investigator]); International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (John Boice, Sc.D. [Member CCSS Steering Committee]); University of Washington, Seattle, WA (Norman Breslow, Ph.D.[doi.org]
  • Late fibroatrophic phase with retractile fibrosis. 4 Various potential contributors have been posited, including free radical damage and ischemia from fibroatrophic changes. 4 Epidemiology including risk factors and primary prevention Many cancer patients[now.aapmr.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Moreover, new insights into the underlying pathophysiology have resulted in an improved understanding of mechanisms of radiation-induced bowel toxicity and in development of new diagnostic strategies and management opportunities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A systematic review of the pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil-induced cardiotoxicity. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2014 ; 15: 47. Google Scholar Crossref Medline ISI 57. Bowles, EJ, Wellman, R, Feigelson, HS.[doi.org]
  • RIP presents most commonly with nonspecific neurologic changes that can include a combination of numbness, paresthesias, pain, and weakness. 1,2 Etiology and Pathophysiology Prior to the 1960s, nervous tissue was thought to be resistant to radiation damage[now.aapmr.org]
  • Sonntag, Whole Brain Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets, Biomolecules and Therapeutics, 10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.4.357, 20, 4, (357-370), (2012). Simony H. Kataoka, Frank C.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • In our case, steroids played an important role in management and, maybe, in preventing bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia recurrence after second course of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention of radioinduced cystitis by orgotein: A randomized study. Anticancer Res. 1996; 16 :2025–2028. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 32. Halperin EC, Gaspar L, George S, et al.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For a preoperative hemodynamic study, pre-hydration with intravenous normal saline (50 mL/hour) was used to manifest the pericardial disease and prevent contrast-induced nephropathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further studies are required to support the use of early aggressive therapy for the prevention of radiation retinopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, there remains a paucity of technical information regarding the prevention of a marginal miss during the treatment planning process.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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