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Rare Arteriovenous Malformation


  • Case Report: We present a 50 year old woman who presented with acute onset left sided weakness. Her vitals including blood pressure were noted to be normal on presentation. CT head revealed a right parietal lobar ICH.[neurology.org]
  • Due to the rarity in presentation as well as infrequent reports, there are no specific guidelines to diagnose and manage them.[saudisurgj.org]
  • We present a case of PAVM, which was picked up on a chest X-ray done in a patient with hemoptysis who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a Medical College Hospital in South India.[jacpjournal.org]
  • The first patient presented with episodes of left extremity weakness and numbness as well as chronic headaches. The second patient presented with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.[jnis.bmj.com]
  • We report a case of 53 year-old lady presenting with right hearing associated with hemifacial hypoaesthesia and facial asymmetry for 2 years.[ukm.pure.elsevier.com]
  • In the fall of 2013 I noticed a small bump on my forehead. At first, I thought nothing of it. After a few months my wife told me “why don’t you get that cyst removed?” At my next primary care physician checkup I mentioned it to my doctor.[nyee.edu]
  • Therefore, most diseases affecting this gland frequently involve functional disorders in the sense of either hypo or hyperfunction (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism respectively), and their treatment falls within the domain of endocrinologists.[jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
  • When she was finally able to fall asleep for a mere 30 minutes, she woke up in a pool of her own blood on her couch. 'I panicked, made an unwieldy pad-diaper and put in a tampon,' she recalled.[dailymail.co.uk]
  • […] are the pelvis, extremities and intracranial circulation. 13 They occur with an incidence of 1 to 10 in 1 million and are apparent in 1 to 2.6 percent of neonates. 14 Arteriovenous malformations are frequently associated with additional findings and fall[podiatrytoday.com]
  • Although these lesions are quite uncommon, they are an important part of the differential diagnosis of common pulmonary problems such as hypoxemia, pulmonary nodules and cyanosis.[panafrican-med-journal.com]
  • Patients may present with hemoptysis, shortness of breath, and hypoxemia signs and symptoms which are common to many other pulmonary diseases. [1] PAVM can be simple/complex, single/multiple, and primary/secondary.[jacpjournal.org]
Accelerated Growth
  • A 12-year-old boy presented with accelerated growth of a right scalp lesion over a few months. Digital subtraction angiography showed a large, right parietooccipital intraosseous AVM with multiple complex arterial feeders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The vascular malformation then grows along with and at the same rate as the individual but due to hormonal stimulation, such as puberty and pregnancy, may experience accelerated growth.[gynecology-obstetrics.imedpub.com]
Atrial Septal Defect
  • Three forms of management are available for the various types of PAVMs: (1) transcatheter embolization therapy (using different devices such as coils, detachable balloons, and various devices designed for occlusion of atrial septal defects and patent[panafrican-med-journal.com]
  • Tinnitus. Unexplained neurological symptoms: feeling weak, losing your balance, dizziness, poor memory, experiencing numbness or tingling.[thelondonclinic.co.uk]


  • Initial laboratory workup showed hemoglobin (Hb): 11.3 g/dl, hematocrit (HCT): 35.7%, white blood cells (WBC): 6.1 10 9 (PMN: 57.4%, L: 34.5%), Platelets: 306 10 9 ; all within the normal range.[frontiersin.org]
  • Approximately 50% are located in the craniofacial region with those in the head and neck region being far less common than the intracranial AVMs. [1], [2] Magnetic resonance imaging is considered as the gold standard for workup of a malformation [6] and[amhsjournal.org]


  • The treatment options for hemangiomas are same with AVM. [6] All of the vascular lesions on glans penis in childhood are benign. Treatment depends on request of patients or their parents.[njcponline.com]
  • Treatment of these lesions is difficult and can necessitate a multidisciplinary approach.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Basically, combined treatment is preferred.[jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
  • Treatment varies based on the severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
  • Onyx( ) in endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations - A review. Pol J Radiol 2013;78:35-41. 6. Vaidya S, Cooke D, Kogut M, Stratil PG, Bittles MA, Sidhu M. Imaging and percutaneous treatment of vascular anomalies.[amhsjournal.org]


  • […] also vary on an individual basis, such as sclerotherapy, embolization, or surgical excision, each with their own set of pros and cons. [1], [3], [4] Acute local control may be achieved via cystoscopic electrocoagulation, as in our case, with a guarded prognosis[saudisurgj.org]
  • Treatment and prognosis Treatment options include: trans-catheter coil embolization surgery (historically treated with surgery) Once successfully treated (embolotherapy, surgical resection), prognosis is generally good for an individual lesion.[radiopaedia.org]
  • The rarity of this condition and its guarded prognosis make our case of special interest to cardiologists and the perinatal care team. KEYWORDS: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation; Coarctation of aorta; Isthmal hypoplasia; Vein of Galen[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis Iris AVMs carry very little risk for morbidity or mortality and thus confer an excellent prognosis. BSCS Section 2. Fundaments and Principles of Ophthalmology BSCS Section 4.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • A systematic review of the frequency and prognosis of arteriovenous malformations of the brain in adults. Brain. 2001; 124 (Pt 10): 1900-26. 7. Batjier H, Samson D.[degruyter.com]


  • As to the etiology of the AVM in this instance, there was a concern prior to hysterectomy for an AVM. Given the eventual diagnosis of arteriovenous fistula, this idea was again examined.[gynecology-obstetrics.imedpub.com]
  • Etiology of the hemorrhage was deemed to be cryptogenic. A month later she improved to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 0. Three months later, she presented again with left sided weakness.[neurology.org]
  • […] showing arteriovenous malformation (circled in red) Click here to view Figure 3: Postembolization chest X-ray showing clips in situ and a resolved cherry aneurysm (arteriovenous malformation) Click here to view Discussion PAVM is a rare condition, the etiology[jacpjournal.org]
  • Etiology The etiology of vascular malformations of the spinal cord has not been clearly defined. Intradural parenchymal malformations arise in a younger patient population and are believed to be congenital.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • Clin Neuroradiol 20:5–24 Google Scholar Laakso A, Hernesniemi J (2012) Arteriovenous malformations: epidemiology and clinical presentation.[link.springer.com]
  • We will now review the four different types of spinal AVM's, note their different epidemiologic and clinical aspects, and cover different treatment options.[medschool.lsuhsc.edu]
  • […] coils, particles, acrylates, or polymers introduced by a radiographically guided catheter, may be used in addition to neurosurgery or radiosurgery, but is rarely successful in isolation except in smaller AVMs. [15] Gamma knife may also be used. [16] Epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2011. p. 169-186.[rarediseases.org]
  • Improvements in spinal cord imaging, such as MRI and angiography, have provided further insight into the anatomy and pathophysiology of these lesions.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • In contrast, congenital malformations increase in size as the child grows. [13] According to their pathophysiology and vascular architecture low flow and high flow malformations are distinguished.[faoj.org]
  • Refe rences: Aminoff MJ, Barnard RO, Logue V: The pathophysiology of spinal vascular malformations. Journal of Neurological Sciences 23: 255-263, 1974. Aminoff MJ, Logue V: Clinical features of spinal vascular malformations. Brain 97: 211-218, 1974.[medschool.lsuhsc.edu]
  • […] malformations [ edit ] In the lungs, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations have no symptoms in up to 29% of all cases. [5] Genetics [ edit ] Can occur due to autosomal dominant diseases, such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia . [ citation needed ] Pathophysiology[en.wikipedia.org]


  • During the operation, the doctors clipped the aneurysms and excised AVM to prevent further bleeding.[deccanchronicle.com]
  • One month after surgery, substitution maintenance therapy was started to prevent compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral lobe. Figure 1 Computed tomography of the neck-coronal.[jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com]
  • Managing high blood pressure, avoiding medications that thin the blood, and keeping regular appointments with a neurologist can also help monitor your condition and prevent complications.[healthline.com]
  • This communication highlights the common differential and use of multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography along with other imaging modalities to prevent a fatal hemorrhage and arrive at a correct diagnosis.[jomfp.in]
  • This blocks blood flow from entering into the aneurysm, preventing future rupture.[massgeneral.org]

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